**Terms and definitions collated from the following sources:**- Plofker, K. 2009. Mathematics in India. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- Sarasvati Amma, T. A. 1979. Geometry in Ancient and Medieval India. Delhi: Motilal Barnarsidass.

Somayaji, D. A. 1971. A Critical Study of the Ancient Hindu Astronomy in the light and language of the modern. Dharwar: Karnataka University.

Subbarayappa, B. V. and K. V. Sarma. 1985.*Indian Astronomy: A Sourcebook.*Bombay: Nehru Centre.

- ābādhā (or avabādhā, avadhā, abadhā, badhā)
- Segment of the base of triangle produced by the altitude on it; the projection of any slanting side on the horizontal
- adhidina
- Intercalary day
- adhimāsa(ka)
- Intercalary month; the intercalary months denote the excess the lunar (synodic) months over the solar months and thus the intercalary months in a
*yuga*are the lunar months*minus*the solar months in the*yuga* - adhimāsaśeṡa
- Residue relating to the intercalary month,
*adhimāsa* - adhivarṡa
- Twelve intercalary months
- agrā
- Amplitude at rising
*i.e.*, the arc of the celestial horizon lying between the east point where the heavenly body concerned rises; or the $\mathcal{R}$ sine thereof (sometimes called*agrājyā*), which is equal to the distance between the east-west line and the rising-setting of the heavenly body concerned - ahargaṇa
- 1. The number of days accumulated between a given epoch date and some desired date. 2. The number of mean civil days elapsed since the beginning of
*Kaliyuga*(or any other epoch) - ahorātra
- 1. A day and night, a nychthemeron. 2. The day radius
*i.e.*, the radius of the diurnal circle - ahorātrārdhaviṣkambha
- Semi-diameter of the diurnal circle (of a heavenly body, particularly the Sun)
*i.e.*, the day radius. - ahorātrāsu
- The number of
*asu*s in a day and night*i.e.*, 21600 - ahorātravṛtta
- Diurnal circle
- akṡāṃśa
- Local latitude in degrees
- akṣa
- Latitude - The term
*akṣa*is an abbreviation of the complete term,*akṣonnati*, meaning the inclination of the Earth's axis to the plane of the celestial horizon,*i.e.*, the latitude of the place - ākṣadṛkkarma
- Visibility correction due to local latitude
- akṣajīvā
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine of latitude
- akṣajyā
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine of latitude
- akṣṇayārajju
- The diagonal chord of rectangle or a square
- amāvasyā
- Day of conjunction of Sun and Moon
*i.e.*, New Moon day - aṃśa
- 1. Degree. 2. Part. 3. An upper vertex of a quadrilateral.
- anādeśyagrahaṇa
- The eclipse that are not to be predicted
- aṅgula
- 1. Digit, as a unit of linear measure (finger-breadth). 2. Unit of length, $1/24$
^{th}of a cubit - antyajyā
- The current $\mathcal{R}$ sine difference,
*i.e.*, the $\mathcal{R}$ sine difference corresponding to the elementary arc occupied by a planet In*Hindu*trigonometry, the quadrant of a circle is divided into 24 equal parts called*elementary arcs*. - antyaphala
- Maximum correction due to the
*mandocca*or*śīghrocca* - antyaphalajyā
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the maximum correction
- anuloma
- Direct or anticlockwise
- anuṣṭubha
- A Sanskrit verse meter consisting of four quarter-verses of eight syllables each
- apakrama
- 1. Greatest declination. 2. Declination
- apakramamaṇḍala
- Ecliptic
- apama
- Declination
- apamaṇḍala
- Ecliptic
- ardha
- Half
- ardhajyā
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine
- arkāgrā
- Sun's amplitude at rising, or the $\mathcal{R}$ sine thereof
- asakṛtkarma
- Method of successive approximations
- asavaḥ
- Asus of the right ascension or the time in the
*asus*of rising at the equator - aśvayuk
- Month of
*Aśvina* - asita
- 1.
*asita pakṣa**i.e.*, the dark half of a lunar (synodic) month. 2. The measure of the unilluminated part of the Moon - asta
- The setting of a heavenly body
- astalagna
- The setting point of the ecliptic
- astamaya
- Diurnal or heliacal setting
- astamayodayasūtra
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine setting line
- asu
- A unit of time equal to four sidereal seconds
- avamādina
- Omitted lunar days or omitted
*tithi*s - avamarātra
- Omitted lunar days or omitted
*tithi*s - avamaśeṡa
- Residue of the omitted lunar days or omitted
*tithi*s - avanati
- Moon's true latitude as corrected for parallax
- aviśeṣakalākarṇa
- The distance (
*lit.*, hypotenuse) of a planet measured in minutes and obtained by the method of successive approximations - āyāma
- Breadth of an object; sometimes, length as opposed to breadth
- ayanāṃśa
- Arc of the ecliptic intercepted between the vernal equinox and the zero point (as set by the Indian tradition)
- ayana
- Northward or southward motion of a planet
- āyanadṛkkarma
- Visibility correction due to ecliptic longitude
- ayata
- Rectangle
- ayatacaturbhuja
- Rectangle
- ayatavṛtta
- Ellipse
- bāhu
- 1. The base of a right angled triangle. 2. The
*bāhu*(or*bhūja*) corresponding to a planet's anomaly or to any arc/angle - bāhuphala
- Correction due to the
*mandocca*or*śigrocca*of a planet - bāṇa
- 1. Arrow. 2. Height of an arc or segment of a circle
- bava
- The name of the five movable
*karaṇa*, the*karaṇa*being one of the five important elements of the Hindu calendar - bha
- 1. Asterism. 2. Sign
- bhabhrama
- Revolutions of fixed stars
- bhacakra
- Circle of the asterisms
- bhāga
- 1. Degree. 2. Part
- bhagaṇa
- The revolution number of a planet,
*i.e.*, the number of revolutions that a planet performs around the Earth in a certain period - bhagola
- Sphere of asterisms, with its centre at the Earth's centre
- bhapañjara
- Circle of the asterisms
- bhapariṇāha
- Circumference of the circle of the asterisms
- bheda
- Occultation of a star
- bhinnadikka
- Unlike direction
- bhoga
- Motion
- bhogyakāla
- Time to pass or expend
- bhogyakhaṇḍa
- Tabular difference of $\mathcal{R}$ sine, etc. to be passed in the meridian
- bhū
- 1. Base of a triangle. 2. Earth
- bhūcchāyā
- Earth's shadow
- bhūdina
- Civil days or Terrestrial days
- bhūdivasa
- Civil days or Terrestrial days
- bhūgola
- Sphere of the Earth
- bhūgolaviṣkambha
- Diameter of the Earth
- bhuja
- 1. Longitude. 2. Base of a triangle
- bhujā
- Lateral side of a right angled triangle
- bhujājyā
- The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of
*bhuja*(*bhujā*or*bāhu*) - bhujāntara
- Correction for the equation of time due to the eccentricity of the ecliptic
- bhujāphala
- Correction due to the
*mandocca*or*śigrocca*of a planet - bhūjyā
- Earth-sine. The distance between the rising-setting line and the line joining the points of intersection of the diurnal circle and the six o'clock circle, or the $\mathcal{R}$ sine thereof
- bhuktakāla
- Elapsed time
- bhukti
- Motion or daily motion
- bhuktiviśeṣa
- Motion differences
- bhuktiyoga
- Sum of daily motions
- bhūmi
- 1. Base of a triangle. 2. Earth
- bhūtārāgrahavivara
- The distance between Earth and a star planet
- bīja
- 1. Algebra. 2. A conversion constant to adjust astronomical parameters; (
*lit.*, seed) - bimba
- Disc or orb of a planet
- brahmadivasa
- A day of
*Brahmā*, a*kalpa* - caitra
- The name of the first month of the year
- cakra
- 1. Circle. 2. Twelve signs or 360°
- cakraliptā
- The number of minutes of arc in a circle,
*i.e.*, 21600 - cakrārdha
- Half of a circle,
*i.e.*, 180° - cakravālavṛtta
- Annulus
- calakendra
- The longitude of the planet's
*śīghrocca**i.e.*, the apex of fastest motion,*minus*the longitude of the planet - calakendraphala
- Correction due to the planet's
*śīghrocca* - caloca
- Apex of fastest motion.
- candrabhagaṇa
- Revolutions of the Moon
- candraha
- Time taken by the Moon to overtake the Sun by 12° beginning from the zero point of the ecliptic (as set by the Indian tradition)
- candrakarṇa
- Distance of the Moon from the Earth
- cāndramāsa (saṣimāsa)
- Lunar month or Lunation
- cāndravarśa
- Twelve lunar months
- candrocca
- Moon's apogee
- cāpa
- Arc
- cāpabhāga
- An element of arc of elementary arc,
*i.e.*, one of the twenty four equal divisions of a quadrant. The $\mathcal{R}$ sine differences for these have been tabulated by*Aryābhaṭa I* - cāpajyārdha (jyā)
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine
- cāpakṣetra
- Segment
- cāpita
- Converted into (or reduced to) the corresponding arc
- cara
- Ascensional difference. It is defined by the arc of the celestial equator lying between the six o'clock circle and the hour circle of a heavenly body at rising
- caradala
- Ascensional difference. It is defined by the arc of the celestial equator lying between the six o'clock circle and the hour circle of a heavenly body at rising
- carajīvārdha
- The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the ascensional difference
- carajyā
- The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the ascensional difference
- caraphala
- Correction due to ascensional difference
- carapāṇa
- The
*asus*of ascensional difference - carasaṃskāra
- Latitude correction in the celestial longitude of a planet
- carāsu
- The
*asus*of ascensional difference - caturasra
- Quadrilateral square
- catuṣkona
- Quadrilateral
- chandas
- Prosody or poetic metrics. One of the six Vedāṅgas
- chāyā
- 1. Shadow. 2. The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the zenith distance
- chāyābhuja
- Length of the perpendicular from the end of the gnomic shadow to the East-West line
- chāyākarṇa
- Hypotenuse of the right-angled triangle formed with the gnomon and the gnomonic shadow cast by the Sun, being the other two sides
- dakṣiṇāyana
- Sun's southward motion from summer solstice to winter solstice
- daṇḍa
- A punctuation mark in the form of a vertical stroke
- darśanasaṃskāra
- Visibility corrections. There are three visibility corrections: (a)
*akṣadṛkkarma*which is the measure of the arc of the ecliptic lying between the hour circle and the circle of position of the planet concerned, (b)*ayanadṛkkarma*which is measured by the arc of the ecliptic lying between the circle of celestial longitude and the hour circle of planet concerned and (c) a correction of 48' to be subtracted from the Moon's longitude or added to it according as the Moon is in the eastern or western hemispheres. These corrections having been applied to the true longitude of a planet, we obtain the longitude of that point of the ecliptic that rises on the local horizon simultaneously with the actual planet - deśantara
- 1. The longitude of a place. It is either the distance of the place from the prime meridian or the difference between the local and standard times. 2. Longitudinal correction in the celestial longitude of a planet
- deśantaraghaṭī
*deśāntara*, in*ghaṭīs*of the difference between the local and standard times- deśāntaraphala
- Correction due to the difference in longitude
- dhanu
- Arc
- dhanuḥkāṣṭha
- Arc; (
*lit.*, bow-stick) - dhanurbhāga
- The element of arc or elementary arc,
*i.e.*, one of the twenty four equal divisions of a quadrant. The $\mathcal{R}$ sine differences for these have been tabulated by*Aryābhaṭa I* - dharā
- 1. Base of a triangle. 2. Earth
- dharma
- The Hindu doctrine of sacred law or righteousness; the moral and religious duties prescribed for humans
- dhruva
- Pole of the celestial equator
- dhruvaprota
- Secondary to the celestial equator
- dhruvaprotavṛtta
- Declination circle
- dhruvasūtra
- Declination circle
- dhruvayaṣṭi
- Polar axis
- dikjyā
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the azimuth measured from the East point
- dina
- Day
- dinadalāntyā
*āntyā*at midday- dinagaṇa
- 1. The number of days accumulated between a given epoch date and some desired date. 2. The number of mean civil days elapsed since the beginning of
*Kaliyuga*(or any other epoch) - dinagata
- Time of day passed/elapsed
- dināntodayalagna
- The rising point of the ecliptic at Sunset
- dinārdha
- Half day
- dinaśeṡa
- Time until sunset
- dorjyā
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine of longitude
- dṛggati
- Arc of the ecliptic between the Sun or Moon and the celestial ecliptic point or its $\mathcal{R}$ sine value
- dṛggatijyā
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine of
*dṛggati* - dṛggola
- Visible celestial sphere
- dṛgjyā
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine of Meridian zenith distance or simply, the $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the zenith distance
- dṛkjyā
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the zenith distance in any position
- dṛklambana
- Parallax in zenith distance
- dṛkcgāyā
- Parallax
- ṛkkarma
- Visibility corrections. There are three visibility corrections: (a)
*akṣadṛkkarma*which is the measure of the arc of the ecliptic lying between the hour circle and the circle of position of the planet concerned, (b)*ayanadṛkkarma*which is measured by the arc of the ecliptic lying between the circle of celestial longitude and the hour circle of planet concerned and (c) a correction of 48' to be subtracted from the Moon's longitude or added to it according as the Moon is in the eastern or western hemispheres. These corrections having been applied to the true longitude of a planet, we obtain the longitude of that point of the ecliptic that rises on the local horizon simultaneously with the actual planet - dṛkkṣepa
- 1. Ecliptic zenith distance or its $\mathcal{R}$ sine. Thus, the
*dṛkkṣepa*is the zenith distance of that point of a planet's orbit which is the shortest distance from the zenith. This term is sometimes also used fro the $\mathcal{R}$ sine of that zenith distance. 2. The arc measuring on vertical to ecliptic between the zenith and the nonagesimal point - dṛkkṣepajyā
- The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the
*dṛkkṣepa* - dṛkkṣepamaṇḍala
- 1. Vertical circle through the central ecliptic point. 2. Secondary to ecliptic passing through the zenith
- dṛṅmaṇḍala
- 1. Vertical circle. 2. Circle passing through zenith and the planet
- dvisamabhuja
- Isosceles triangle
- dyudalaśanku
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine altitude at midday
- dyūgaṇa
- 1. The number of days accumulated between a given epoch date and some desired date. 2. The number of mean civil days elapsed since the beginning of
*Kaliyuga*(or any other epoch) - dyujyā
- 1. $\mathcal{R}$ cosine of the declination of a celestial body. 2. Radius of diurnal circle
- dyujyāmaṇḍala
- Diurnal circle
- dyujyāvṛtta
- Diurnal circle
- gaccha
- In Jainism, a lineage of teachers and pupils
- gaṇita
- 1. Computation, calculation; mathematics in general. 2. The mathematical component of astronomy and astrology
- gantavya
- To be traversed; to come, succeeding
- gata
- Traversed, elapsed, past, preceding
- gati
- Motion, generally used in the sense of daily motion of the planets
- gatyantara
- Motion-difference
- ghanabhūmadhya
- Earth's centre
- ghanagola
- Solid sphere
- ghanaphala
- Volume
- ghāta
- Product; multiplication
- ghātakṣetra
- Diagrammatic representation of a multiplication product
- ghaṭī
- A unit of time equal to 24 minutes
- ghaṭikā (also known as
*ghaṭī*), - 1. A time unit equal to one-sixtieth of a day, 24 minutes
- gola
- 1. Sphere. 2. Celestial sphere. 3. Hemisphere; northern or southern hemispheres 4. Spherics
- golayantra
- Automatic sphere-model of the
*bhagola* - gotra
- Among Brāhmaṇas, a lineage tracing its descent to one of the legendary sages of Hinduism
- graha
- Planet
- grāhaka
- The eclipsing body; the
*eclipser* - grāhakārdha
- Half the diameter of the eclipsing body
- grahakṣitija
- A great circle whose poles are situated at a planet
- grahaṇa
- Eclipse
- grahaṇamadhya
- Middle of the Eclipse
- grāhya
- The eclipsed body
- grāhyabimba
- The disc of the eclipsed body
- grāhyamaṇḍala
- The centre of the eclipsed body
- grāsa
- 1. Measure of the eclipse. 2. Erosion by overlapping. 3. Common portion of two intersecting circles; the largest width thereof
- guṇaka
- Multiplier
- gurvabda
- Jovian year
- gurvakṣara
- Long syllable
- harija
- Horizon
- hasta
- Cubit, measure of length
- ha'ya
- (Arabic) Islamic astronomy, particularly its geometric models
- horā
- Unit of time equivalent to $1/24$
^{th}of one day and night period - hṛdaya
- Circum-radius
- hṛdayarajju
- Circum-radius
- hṛt
- Circum-radius
- hṛti
- Hypotenuse
- illam
- (Malayalam) Among Brāhmaṇas in Kerala, a family residence or estate
- indūcca
- The Moon's apogee
*i.e.*, the remotest point of the Moon's orbit - induāta
- Ascending node of the Moon
- iṣṭa
- 1. Given, desired or chosen at pleasure. 2.
*iṣṭagraha**i.e.*, desired or given planet - iṣṭhaśaṅku
- $\mathcal{R}$ cosine of the zenith distance of the Sun in any arbitrary position
- iṣu
- 1. Arrow. 2. Height of an arc or segment of a circle
- janya
- Rational right triangle or rectangle from which other rational figures are to be obtained; a figure with rational sides
- jātaka
- Genethlialogy; the practice or study of casting nativity horoscopes
- jāti
- Hereditary social and occupational group, often translated caste
- jātya
- A rational right-angled triangle or any rectilinear figure with rational sides
- jīvā
- 1. Sine or Chord; (
*lit.*bowstring.) 2. $\mathcal{R}$ sine - jivābhukti
- True daily motion derived with the help of the table of $\mathcal{R}$ sine differences
- jñāti
- Hereditary social and occupational group, sometimes a subdivision of
*jāti*and sometimes synonymous with it - jūka
- Sign
*Libra* - jyā
- 1. Sine or Chord; (
*lit.*bowstring.) 2. $\mathcal{R}$ sine (Radius $\times$ Sine). The $\mathcal{R}$ sine difference corresponding to the twenty four equal divisions of a quadrant - jyārdha (jyā)
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine
- jyotiṣa
- Astronomy and astrology. One of the six Vedāṅgas
- kadamba
- Pole of the ecliptic
- kadambaprata
- Secondary to the ecliptic
- kadambasūtra
- Secondary to the ecliptic
- kāha
- A day of
*Brahmā*known as a*Kalpa* - kakṣyā
- Orbit
- kakṣyāmaṇḍala (also known as
*kakṣavṛtta*) - Mean orbit of planet, deferent of concentric
- kalā
- A time unit equal to one-sixtieth of a
*muhūrta*. 2. In the*Jyotiṣa vedāṅga*, a time unit equal to 201/20 of a*ghaṭikā*. 3. Minute of Arc - kālāṃśa
- Degrees indicating time
- kalārdhajā
- The 24 $\mathcal{R}$ sine differences in terms of minutes
- Kaliyuga
- The last of the four ages in a
*mahāyuga*, equal to 432,000 years. Indian cosmology holds that the current Kaliyuga began on 18 February 3102 BCE - kalpa
- 1. A lifetime of the universe, conventionally equal to 4,320,000,000 years. 2. A period of 1000
*yuga*s. 3.The Vedāṅga of ritual practice - karaṇa
- 1. A handbook for astronomical computation or astronomical manual. 2. A time unit equal to half a
*tithi*or the time during which the Moon gains 6° over the Sun 3. The name of one of the five principal elements of the*Hindu*calendar - karaṇī
- 1. A surd or non-square number; (
*lit.*, making). 2. The side of a rectilinear figure; the side of a square or rectangle. 3. The maker or producer of the required area. - karṇa
- 1. Hypotenuse, lateral side. 2. Distance of planet from Earth
- kaṭapayādi
- An alphanumeric notational system for verbally representing numerals
- kendra
- 1. Anomaly. The
*kendra*is of two kinds,*mandakendra*and*śīghrakendra*. The*mandakendra*of a planet is equal to the 'longitude of the planet*minus*the longitude of the planet's*mandocca**i.e.*, the planet's apogee', where as the*śīghrakendra*of a planet is equal to the longitude of the planet's*śīghrocca**i.e.*, the apex of fastest motion,*minus*the longitude of the planet. 2. Centre - kha
- 1. Void. 2. Sky
- khagola
- Sphere of the sky
- khamadhya
- Middle of the sky
- khaṇḍagrahaṇa
- Partial eclipse
- khātaphala
- Volume of a pit or excavation
- koṇa
- Angle, corner
- koṇamaṇḍala (koṇavṛtta)
- Intermediary vertical circle
- koṇaśanku
- 1. $\mathcal{R}$ cosine of the zenith distance of the Sun when the azimuth measured from the East-West line is 45°. 2. $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the altitude from the intermediary vertical circle,
*koṇavṛtta* - koṇaśankutala
- Base of the
*koṇaśanku* - koṣṭhaka
- A set of tables for astronomical computation
- koṭi (koṭī)
- 1. Vertical/perpendicular side of right-angled triangle. 2. Complement of the
*bhuja* - koṭijyā
- Cosine, $\mathcal{R}$ cosine
- koṭiphala
- The result obtained by multiplying the $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the
*koṭi*due to the planet's*kendra*by the tabulated epicycle and dividing the product by 80 - krama
- Serial order
- kramajyā
- 1. Sine or Chord; (
*lit.*bowstring.) 2. $\mathcal{R}$ sine (Radius $\times$ Sine). The $\mathcal{R}$ sine difference corresponding to the twenty four equal divisions of a quadrant - krānti
- Declination
- krāntijyā
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the declination of a celestial body
- krāntimaṇḍala
- Ecliptic
- kriya
- The zodiacal sign,
*Aries* - kṛti
- Square
- kṛttikā
- The
*nakṣatra*of*Kṛttikā* - kṣayamāsa (aṃhaspatimāsa)
- A
*candramāsa*lost in the process of intercalation - kṣayayaha (unaha)
- A lost
*tithi*or a*tithi*containing two consecutive Sunrises - kṣepa
- 1. Additive or subtractive quantity/correction. 2. Celestial latitude, see under
*vikṣepa* - kṣetra
- Closed figure
- kṣetragaṇita
- Geometry
- kṣetraphala
- Area
- kṣipti
- Celestial latitude
- kṣiptiliptikāḥ
- The minutes of the celestial latitude
- kṣiticchāyā
- Earth's shadow
- kṣitija
- 1. Mars. 2. Horizon (
*kṣitija vṛtta*) - kṣitijā (also known as
*kṣitijyā*) - Earth-sine. The distance between the rising-setting line and the line joining the points of intersection of the diurnal circle and the six o'clock circle, or the $\mathcal{R}$ sine thereof
- ku
- 1. Earth. 2. Base of a triangle
- kūdina
- Civil days or Terrestrial days
- kuja
- Mars
- kujyā
- Earth-sine. The distance between the rising-setting line and the line joining the points of intersection of the diurnal circle and the six o'clock circle, or the $\mathcal{R}$ sine thereof
- kuvāyu
- Terrestrial wind
- kvāvarta
- Rotations of the Earth
- laghujyā
- Calculations of $\mathcal{R}$ sine of arcs of 10°
- laghvahargaṇa
- Civil days between the end of one solar year and any date in the current year
- lagna
- The rising point of the ecliptic
*i.e.*, orient ecliptic point. - lakṣajyā
- Sine, $\mathcal{R}$ sine when $\mathcal{R}$ = 120 units
- lambajyā
- The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the colatitude
- lamba(ka)
- 1. The $\mathcal{R}$ cosine of the colatitude 2. perpendicular/altitude/vertical of a figure
- lambakaguṇa
- The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the colatitude
- lambāṃśa
- Colatitude in degrees
- lambana
- Parallax in longitude; or, in particular, the difference between the parallaxes in longitude of the Sun and the Moon
- laṅkā
- The hypothetical place on the equator where the meridian of
*Ujjain*intersects it,*i.e.*, place with 0° longitude and 0° latitude - laṅkodaya
- Time of rising of the Signs at
*Laṅkā*, i.e., right ascensions of the Signs - lipta
- Minute of an arc
- liptāśeṣa
- The residue of the minute
- madhya
- 1. Centre, middle. 2. Mean. 3. Middle term in a series. 4. Zenith distance of ecliptic point
- madhyacchāyā
- The midday shadow of the gnomon
- madhyagraha
- Mean planet
- madhyāhnacchāyākarṇa
- Hypotenuse of right-angled triangle, two sides of which are the gnomon and the midday shadow
- madhyajivā
- The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the zenith distance of the meridian ecliptic point
- madhyajyā
- Meridian sine,
*i.e.*, $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the zenith distance of the meridian ecliptic point - madhyalagna
- Meridian ecliptic point
- madhyalagnaśanku
- $\mathcal{R}$ cosine of the meridian ecliptic point
- madhyābhuktiḥ
- Mean daily motion
- madhyamalambana
- 1. Parallax in zenith distance. 2. Mean Altitude
- madhyarkrānti
- Declination of the place of a planet on the ecliptic
- madhyamasavana
- Mean solar day
- madhyasphuṭa
- True mean motion of a planet
- mahāyuga
- A cosmological time span equal to 4,320,000 years
- mahī
- 1. Base of a triangle. 2. Earth
- maitra
- The
*nakṣatra*,*Anurādhā*which is presided over by*Mitra* - makara
- Capricorn
- māṇaikyārdha
- Sum of the radii of the eclipsing and the eclipsed bodies
- manda
- 1. The inequality in a planet's orbital motion that depends on its position with respect to the stars, analogous to zodiacal anomaly. (
*lit.*, slow). 2. Slow, apex of slow motion - mandagatiphala
- Correction to the mean motion of a planet
- mandakarṇa
- Hypotenuse associated with
*mandocca* - mandakendrajyā
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the
*mandakendra* - maṇḍala
- Circle, revolution
- mandāṃśa
- The longitudes of the apogees of the planets in terms of degrees
- mandāntyaphala
- Maximum correction due to
*mandocca* - mandāntyaphalajyā
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the maximum correction due to
*mandocca* - mandaparidhi
- Circumference of the
*manda*epicycle - mandaphala
- Equation of the centre
- mandaphalajyā
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the equation of the centre
- mandaspaṣṭagati
- Mean motion of a planet corrected by
*mandagatiphala* - mandasphuṭa
- 1. Planet's longitude corrected for the equation of centre. 2. Mean motion of a planet corrected by
*mandagatiphala* - mandasphuṭagati
- Mean motion of a planet corrected by
*mandagatiphala* - mandavṛtta
*manda*epicycle- mandocca
- Apogee or aphelion of a planet
- mandoccakarṇa
- Hypotenuse associated with
*mandocca* - mandoccaphala
- Correction due to planet's
*mandocca* - manu
- A period of time equal to 72
*yugas* - manvantara
- A cosmological time span equal to seventy-one
*mahāyugas*or 306,720,000 years - māsa
- Month
- meṣa
- Sign Aries
- mīmāṃsā
- The Vedāṅga of philosophical investigation of scripture; a division of Indian philosophy
- mīna
- Sign Pisces
- mokṣa
- The separation of the eclipsed body after an eclipse, the last contact, or the end of the eclipse
- mṛga
- Sign Capricorn
- muhūrta
- A time unit equal to one-thirtieth of a day
- mukha
- Face, top-side of an object or figure with more than three sides, especially the top or shorter/parallel side of a trapezium
- mūla
- 1. Square root. 2. Base text (on which an expository commentary is written)
- nabha
- Zero
- nāḍī
- Unit of time equivalent to 24 minutes
- nāḍīvalaya
- Celestial equator
- nāgarī (also called
*deva-nāgarī*) - The name of the script most commonly used to write Sanskrit
- nakṣatra
- 1. One of the twenty-seven or twenty-eight constellations that lie in the orbital path of the Moon. 2. An arc of the ecliptic with length 13° 20' , associated with one of the above mentioned lunar constellations. 3. An interval of time during which the Moon traverses an arc of 13° 20'. 4. Asterism
- nakṣatradivasa (nakṣatradina)
- Sidereal day
- nakṣatramāsa
- Sidereal month
- nara
- Gnomon
- natabhāga
- Meridian zenith distance
- natabhāgajyā (natajyā)
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine of zenith distance
- natajyā
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine of zenith distance
- natakāla
- Hour-angle measured in time
- natakālajyā
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine of hour-angle
- natakālakoṭijyā
- $\mathcal{R}$ cosine of hour-angle
- natakāletkramajyā
- $\mathcal{R}$ versed sine of hour-angle
- natāṃśa
- Zenith distance
- nati
- 1. Meridian zenith distance or the $\mathcal{R}$ sine of that. 2. Difference between the parallaxes in latitude of the Sun and the Moon
*i.e.*, latitudinal parallax - nemi
- Part of an annulus
- nīca
- Perigee of epicycle or the the eccentric of the planet
- nīcoccavṛtta
- Epicycle
- nīcoccarekhā
- Line of apse
- nīcoccavṛtta
- Epicycle
- nirakṣajāḥ (asavaḥ)
- Asus of the right ascension or the time in the
*asus*of rising at the equator - nirgama
- Annulus
- pāda
- 1. A quarter-verse; (
*lit.*, foot.) 2. Ascending Node - padabhā
- A gnomon shadow measured in units of feet; (
*lit.*, foot-shadow) - pakṣa
- 1. A school or faction. 2. One side of an equation; (
*lit.*, wing or side.) 3. Lunar fortnight,*i.e.*, the period from new Moon to full Moon or from full Moon to new Moon. The period from new Moon to full Moon is called the light fortnight (or the light half of a lunar month -*śuklapakṣa*) and that from full Moon to new Moon is called the dark fortnight (or the dark half of a lunar month -*kṛṣṇapakṣa*) - pala
- 1. Latitude. 2. Unit of time equivalent to 24 seconds
- palabha
- Equinoctial shadow of the gnomon at noon
- palajyā
- The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the latitude
- palakarṇa
- Hypotenuse of the right-angled triangle formed with the gnomon and the equinoctial shadow being the other two sides
- pañcāṅga
- A yearly calendar tracking the succession of various civil, liturgical, and astronomical time units
- parakarṇa
- Third diameter of a cyclic quadrilateral obtainable by interchanging a pair of adjacent sides
- paramakrānti
- Greatest declination of the Sun,
*i.e.*, the obliquity of the ecliptic - paramakṣipti
- Greatest celestial latitude of the Moon,
*i.e.*, inclination of he Moon's orbit - paramāpakrama
- Greatest declination, obliquity of the ecliptic
- paramāpakramaguṇaḥ
- The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the Sun's greatest declination
- paramāpakramajīvā
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the greatest declination
- paraśaṅku (also known as
*paramaśaṅku*) - $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the greatest altitude,
*i.e.*, $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the meridian altitude - paridhi
- Circumference
- parilekha
- 1. Diagram. 2. Projection of eclipse
- parimaṇḍala
- Ellipse or Circle
- pariṇāha
- Periphery, circumference
- parivarta
- Revolution
- pārśvamānī
- 1. The lateral side of a quadrilateral or the flank-side measurement. 2. The flank-side measurer
- parva
- 1. Time of conjunction or opposition of the Sun and the Moon. 2. Full Moon or the new Moon
*tithi*. 3. An eclipse of the Sun and the Moon. - parvanāḍī
- The
*nāḍīs*of the full Moon or new Moon*tithi*(also called*parva*) which are to elapse at Sunrise on that day. In other words, the time in*nāḍīs*which is to elapse at Sunrise before the time of conjunction or opposition of the Sun and the Moon - paścārdha
- The western half
- pāta
- 1. An astrologically significant event when the longitudes of the Sun and Moon add up to 180° or 360° (equivalently 6 or 12 zodiacal signs). 2. The ascending node of a planet's orbit on the ecliptic. 3. The circumference cum in-centre cum ortho-centre of an equilateral triangle
- pātabhāga
- The degree of longitude of the ascending node
- pātarekhā
- The perpendiculars on the base and top of a trapezium fro the the point of intersection of its diagonals
- pātī
- Arithmetic; (
*lit.*, board - for the dust board on which computations were written out) - pausṇa
- The
*nakṣatra*,*Revatī*which is presided over by*pūṣā* - prabhā
- The shadow of the gnomon
- prāglagna (lagna or prāgvilagna)
- Rising point of the ecliptic
- pragrahaṇa
- First contact in an eclipse
- pragrāsa
- The beginning of an eclipse,
*i.e.*, the first contact - prākkalpa
- The eastern hemisphere
- prākpaścimasutra
- East-West line
- prakriyā
- Process
- prāṇa
- Unit of time equal to four sidereal seconds or one-sixth of a
*vināḍikā* - pratiloma
- Retrograde. A planet is said to be in
*pratiloma*when its motion is retrograde. - pratimaṇḍala (kendravṛtta)
- The eccentric circle of a planet
- pratipad
- The first
*tithi*of either half of the lunar month - prati-vṛtta
- Eccentric circle of a planet
- prauga
- Triangle, typically an isosceles triangle. (The fore-part of the shaft of a chariot that is triangular in shape)
- pravahavāyu
- Provector wind
- prṣṭhaphala
- Surface area
- prṣṭhyā
- Line of symmetry, usually the east-west line
- Purāṇa
- A sacred work on cosmology, mythology, and historical legend
- pūrṇa
- Full, complete
- pūrṇimā
- Full Moon
- pūrvāparāsūtra
- East-West line
- pūrvāparāyata
- Directed east to west
- rāhubimba
- Diameter of the shadow cone of the Earth at the lunar orbit
- rajju
- Perimeter
- rāśi
- Zodiacal sign or 30 °
- ravi
- The Sun
- ravibhagaṇa
- Revolutions of the Sun
- ravikarṇa
- Distance of the Sun from Earth
- ravimāsa
- Solar month
- ravivarṣa
- Solar Year
- ṛjubhuja
- Rectilinear figure
- ṛṇa
- Subtracted, negative
- ṛtu
- Season
- ruṇḍa
- Breadth (of an annular ring)
- rūpa
- 1. Known number; unity;
*abbr.*as*rū*in algebra - sakṛta
- By the application of the rule only once (i.e., without the application of the method of successive approximation)
- sama
- North point of the horizon
- samabāhu
- Equilateral figure
- samacakravāla
- Circle
- samacaturbhuja
- 1. Square or Rhombus. 2. Quadrilateral with all four sides equal
- samadalakoṭi
- Altitude
- samakala
- The planets are said to be
*samakala*when they are either in conjunction or opposition in longitude - samakoṣṭhamiti
- Area, a measure equal to unit squares in a figure
- samaliptendu
- The longitude of the Moon for the time of opposition or conjunction of the Sun and the Moon
- samamaṇḍala (also known as
*sama vṛtta*) - The prime vertical
- samānalamba (or samalamba)
- A quadrilateral with the altitudes equal; trapezium
- samapariṇāha
- Circumference of a circle
- samaprota
- Secondary to prime vertical
- samarekhā
- The meridian
- samaśaṅku
- 1. $\mathcal{R}$ cosine of the zenith distance of the Sun when it is on the prime-vertical. 2. $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the altitude from prime vertical
- samasūtra
- Secondary to the prime-vertical
- samparka
- 1. The sum of the diameters of the two bodies in contact. 2. Used in the sense of the sum of the two diameters of the eclipsed and eclipsing bodies
- samparkārdha (also known as
*samparkadala*) - Half the sum of the diameters of the eclipsed and eclipsing bodies
- sampāta
- Point of intersection
- sampūrvāparaḥ śaṅkuḥ
- The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the prime vertical altitude (of the Sun)
- saṃsarpa
- An intercalary month preceding a
*kṣayamāsa* - saṃskṛta
- Corrected
- sandhi
- The inter-space between the foot of an altitude and the foot of the flank-side from whose tip the altitude is drawn, usually in a quadrilateral
- saṅkrānti
- 1. The moment when the Sun enters a zodiacal constellation (
*rāśi*). 2. Last day of solar month - sapāṭacandra
- Longitude of the Moon with respect to the nearer node of the lunar orbit
- sapāṭasūrya
- Longitude of the Sun with respect to the nearer node of the lunar orbit
- sārpamastaka
- Name of an astronomical phenomenon, one of the
*vyatipātas* - sarvagrāsa
- Total eclipse
- saumya
- 1. North. The northern (hemisphere). 2. Mercury
- sauradina
- Solar day
- sauramāsa
- 1. Time taken by the Sun to traverse each of the zodiacal constellations (
*rāśi*). 2. Solar month - saurasaṃvarṣa
- Solar year
- saurasaṃvatsara
- Solar year
- sauri
- Saturn
- savanadina
- Civil days or Terrestrial days
- savanaha
- Civil days or Terrestrial days
- sāvanamāsa
- 30 civil days
- savya
- Clockwise
- sāyaka
- 1. Arrow. 2. Height of an arc or segment of a circle
- ṣaḍaśri
- Tetrahedron
- śakābda
- The year of
*Śaka*era - śakratārakam
- The
*nakṣatra*,*Jyeṣṭhā*that is presided over by*Indra (Śakra)* - śaṅkavarga
- The distance of the projection of a heavenly body on the plane of the celestial horizon from the rising setting line of the heavenly body
- śaṅkhavṛtta
- A figure resembling the longitudinal section of a conch-shell
- śaṅku
- 1. Gnomon. 2. The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the altitude of a heavenly body
- śaṅkuvedha
- Observations by the gnomon
- śara
- 1. Arrow. 2. $\mathcal{R}$ versed sine. 3. Celestial latitude. 4. Height of an arc or segment of a circle
- śaṣi
- The Moon
- śaṣidivasa (cāndradina)
- Lunar day
- śāstra
- Learned discipline, science
- śīghra
- The inequality in a planet's orbital motion that depends on its position with respect to the Sun, analogous to synodic anomaly; (
*lit.*, fast) - śīghragatiphala
- Second correction to mean motion of planet
- śīghrakendra
- The
*śīghra*anomaly - shighrakendrajyā
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the
*śīghra*anomaly - shighrakendrakoṭijyā
- $\mathcal{R}$ cosine of the
*śīghra*anomaly - śīghraparidhi
- Circumference of the
*śīghra*epicycle - śīghraphala
- Second correction to mean longitude
- śīghraphalajyā
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the second correction to mean longitude
- śīghraśīghrocca
*śīghra*epicycle- śīghravṛtta
*śīghra*epicycle- śīghrocca
- Apex of fastest motion,
*śīghra*apogee - śīghroccakarṇa (also known as
*śīghrakarṇa*) - It is equal to $\sqrt{\left(\mathcal{R} \pm \mathcal{R}\sin(k)\right)^2 + \left(\mathcal{R}\sin(b)\right)^2}$ where $\mathcal{R} = 3438'$, $k$ is
*koṭi*and $b$ is*bhuja*due to*śīghrakendra* - śīghroccaphala
- Correction due to the planet's
*śīghrocca* - śreḍhīkṣetra
- Diagrammatic representation of mathematical series
- śṛṅgāṭaka
- 1. Arrow. 2. Height of an arc or segment of a circle
- śṛṅgonnati
- 1. Triangle. 2. Some form of four-sided figure, tetrahedron
- śroṇi
- A lower vertex of a quadrilateral or triangle
- śruti
- Sacred texts ascribed to divine revelation, such as the
*Vedas*; (*lit.*, hearing) - śuddhi
- 1. Gain of the lunar reckoning over the Solar at the beginning of the lunar year. 2. Mean heliocentric position; for superior planets, mean position of the Sun
- śulba
- A measuring cord; ritual geometry for altar construction
- śunya
- Void
- siddhānta
- Technical treatise; in particular, a comprehensive treatise on astronomy
- śīghrakendra
- The longitude of the planet's
*śīghrocca**i.e.*, the apex of fastest motion,*minus*the longitude of the planet - sita
- 1. The measure of the illuminated part of the Moon's disc; the phase of the Moon. 2. The light half of the lunar month (
*sitapakṣa*). 3. Venus - sitamāna
- The measure of the illuminated part of the Moon's disc
- sitapakṣa
- The light or bright half of a lunar month
- śloka
- Verse, especially a verse in
*anuṣṭubha*meter - smṛti
- Sacred texts ascribed to human authorship; (
*lit.*, remembering) - soma
- A ritual beverage used in some ancient
*Vedic*sacrifices - sparśa
- First contact of an eclipse
- sphuṭa
- True or corrected
- sphuṭabhoga
- True motion
- sphuṭabhukti
- True (daily) motion
- sphuṭabhūparidhi
- Circumference of the Earth measure parallel to the equator at a specified latitude
- sphuṭagraha
- True planet
- sphuṭakrānti
- Declination of planet's centre
- sphuṭalambana
- Parallax in longitude; or, in particular, the difference between the parallaxes in longitude of the Sun and the Moon
- sphuṭamadhya
- 1. True mean motion of a planet. 2. The true-mean planet. 3. The true-mean longitude of a planet
- sphuṭavikṣepa
- Celestial latitude corrected by parallax
- sphuṭavṛtta
- True or corrected epicycle
- sphuṭayojanakarṇa
- The true distance of a planet in terms of
*yojanas* - sthityardha
- Half the duration (of an eclipse)
- sthityardhanāḍikā
- Half the duration (of an eclipse) in terms of
*nāḍīs* - sthūla
- Gross, approximate
- sūcī
- The inner, outer or middle diameter of an annular ring
- sūcīkṣetra
- 1. Triangle got by producing the flanks of a quadrilateral till they meet. 2. The pyramid or cone got by producing the lateral faces of the frustum of a pyramid or cone
- sūtra
- A rule or algorithm; (
*lit.*, thread) - svadeśabhodaya
- Time of rising of the zodiacal signs at the local place, or oblique ascensions of the zodiacal signs
- svadeśabhūmivṛtta
- The local circumference of the Earth,
*i.e.*, circumference of the local circle of latitude - svadeśākṣa
- The latitude of the local place
- svadeśodaya
- Time of rising of the zodiacal signs at the local place, or oblique ascensions of the zodiacal signs
- tājika
- An Islamic form of horoscopic astrology
- tama(s)
- Section of Earth's shadow cone at the Moon's distance
- tamomūrti
- The Moon's ascending node
- tamoviṣkambha
- Diameter of shadow,
*i.e.*, diameter of the Earth's shadow cone at the Moon's distance - tantra
- A type of astronomical treatise
- tārāgraha
- Star planets,
*i.e.*, the planets Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn - tārāgrahas
- Planets: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn
- tātkālika
- momentary, instantaneous; (
*lit.*, at that time) - tiryaṇmānī
- 1. The transverse side of a quadrilateral, the horizontal side. 2. The transverse measurer
- tithi
- A lunar day, or one-thirtieth of a synodic month
- trairāśika
- Rule of three quantities, simple proportion
- tribhuja
- Triangle
- trijyā (also known as
*tribhajyā*) - Radius or 3438', literally the $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the three signs (or an arc of 90°)
- trisama
- 1. Equilateral triangle. 2. Trapezium with three equal sides
- tryasra
- Triangle, more specifically a right-triangle
- tulā
- Sign
*Libra* - tulyacaturbhuja
- 1. Square or Rhombus. 2. Quadrilateral with all four sides equal
- ubhayataḥprauga
- Double Isosceles triangle; rhombus
- ucca
- The
*ucca*of a planet is of two kinds - (a)*mandocca**i.e.*, the apex of slowest motion and (b)*śīghrocca**i.e.*, the apex of fastest motion - uccanīcaparivarta
- Anomalistic or synodic revolutions
- uccanīcavṛtta
- Epicycle
- ucchraya (or ucchriti)
- Height of an object
- udagayana (uttarāyaṇa)
- Sun's northward journey from winter solstice to summer solstice
- udaya
- 1. The rising of a planet on the eastern horizon. 2. Heliacal rising of a planet. 3.
*udaya lagna**i.e.*, the rising point of the ecliptic. 4. Addition, as in*kṣayodayau**i.e.*, subtraction and addition - udayajīvā (also known as
*udayajyā*) - $\mathcal{R}$ sine amplitude of the rising point of the ecliptic
- udayāstamaya
- Heliacal rising and setting
- udayāsta-sutra
- 1. Straight line joining the rising and setting points of a celestial body on a horizontal diameter. 2. Line of intersection of diurnal circle and horizon
- udaggola
- Northern Hemisphere
- udici
- North-South line
- unmaṇḍala
- 1. Equatorial horizon. 2. Six o'clock circle
- unnatāṃśa
- Complement of the zenith distance, or the $\mathcal{R}$ sine of that called
*unnatāṃśajyā* - unnatakāla
- 1. Time elapsed after the rising of a celestial body. 2. Distance from the horizon in time
- upavṛtta
- A small circle parallel to the prime-vertical
- urvī
- 1. Base of a triangle. 2. Earth
- utkramaṇa (also known as
*utkramajyā*) - $\mathcal{R}$ versed sine
- utsedha
- Height of an object
- uttarāyaṇa
- Sun's northward journey from winter solstice to summer solstice
- utvṛtta
- Equatorial horizon
- utvṛttaśaṅku
- $\mathcal{R}$ cosine of the zenith distance of the Sun as seen from a place on the equatorial horizon
- vaidhṛta
- An astronomical phenomenon when the sum of the (true) longitudes of the Sun and the Moon amounts to a circle (
*i.e.*, 360° or 12 signs) - vaiṣṇava
- The
*nakṣatra*,*Śravaṇa*that is presided over by*Viṣṇu* - vaiśva
- The
*nakṣatra*,*Uttarāṣāḍha*that is presided over by*Viśve Devāḥ* - vajrabhāsa
- Cross-multiplication
- vakra
- Retrograde motion
- vākya
- A celestial longitude value encoded in alphanumeric notation; (
*lit.*, sentence) - valana
- (lit. deflection)
*valana*relates to an eclipsed body. It is the angle subtended at the body by the arc joining the north point of the celestial horizon and the north pole of the ecliptic (i.e., the angle between the circle of position and the circle of celestial longitude of the eclipsed body).*valana*is generally divided into two components: 1.*akṣavalana*and 2.*ayanavalana*. The*akṣavalana*is the angle subtended at the body by the arc joining the north point of the celestial horizon and the north pole of the celestial equator (i.e., the angle between the circle of position and the hour circle of the eclipsed body). The*ayanavalana*is the angle subtended at the body by the arc joining the north poles of the equator and the ecliptic (i.e., the angle between the hour circle and the circle of celestial longitudes of the eclipsed body). The*valana*is also defined as follows: The Great circle of which the eclipsed body is the pole is called the horizon of the eclipsed body. Suppose that the prime vertical, equator and the ecliptic intersect the horizon of the eclipsed body at the points A, B, and C respectively, towards the east of the eclipsed body. The the arc AB is called the*akṣavalana*, the arc BC is called*ayanavalana*, and the arc AC is called*valana*.*valana*is also called*spaṣṭavalana* - valayākārakṣetra
- Figure shaped like an annulus or ring
- vāra
- Day
- varga
- 1. Square, in arithmetic or geometry;
*abbr.*as*va*in algebra. 2. The first twenty-five consonants in the Sanskrit alphabet - varṇa
*lit.*, colour. 1. One of the four major divisions of humanity in Hinduism. 2. A way of designating unknown quantities in algebra; different unknowns are referred to by the names of different colours- varṣādhipa
- Lord of the year
- vāsava
- The
*nakṣatra*,*Dhaniṣṭhā*which is presided over by*Vasu* - vasudhā
- 1. Base of a triangle. 2. Earth
- Vedāṅga
- One of the six limbs, or supporting disciplines, of the sacred Vedas
- vedha
- Depth
- vega
- Velocity
- vidikka
- Contrary direction
- vikṣepa
- Celestial latitude
- vikṣepāṁṣa
- The degrees of celestial latitude
- vikṣepajyā
- The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of celestial latitude
- vikṣepaliptikā
- The minutes of celestial latitude
- vikṣepamaṇḍala
- Orbit of the planet
- vikṣipti
- Celestial latitude
- viliptā (also known as
*viliptikā*) - Second of an arc
- viloma
- Retrograde
- vilomavivara
- Difference of two planets, one direct and the other retrograde
- vimardārdha
- Half of the duration of totality of an an eclipse
- viṃdaphala
- Volume
- vināḍikā
- A unit of time, being one-sixth of a
*ghaṭikā*equivalent to 24 seconds - vinmaṇḍala
- Orbit of planet
- vipala
- A unit of time, being one-sixth of a
*ghaṭikā*equivalent to 24 seconds - viṃdaphala
- Volume
- viśakha
- The
*nakṡatra*,*Visākhā* - viṣama
- A quadrilateral with unequal sides; a cyclic quadrilateral
- viṣamacaturbhuja
- A quadrilateral with unequal sides; a cyclic quadrilateral
- viṣamatribhuja
- A Scalene triangle
- viśeṣa
- The difference between diagonal and the side of a square, especially when expressed in terms of the side
- viṣkambhacakravāla
- Ellipse
- viṣkambha
- Diameter
- viṣkambhadala
- Semi-diameter, radius
- viṣkambhārdha
- Semi-diameter, radius
- viṣuvaddina
- The day of the equinox
- viṣuvaddinamadhyāhnacchāyā
- The equinoctial midday shadow
- viṣuvajīva
- $\mathcal{R}$ sine of latitude
- viṣuvat (viṣuvat vṛtta)
- Celestial Equator
- vistāra
- Length or breadth
- vistṛti
- Radius or diameter
- vitribha
- Nonagesimal or the point of the ecliptic having a longitude 1° - 90° where 1 is the longitude of the point of intersection of the ecliptic with the horizon
- vivara
- Difference
- viyat
- Zero
- vṛti
- Perimeter
- vṛtta
- 1. Circle of its circumference. 2. Epicycle
- vṛttaparidhi
- Circumference of a circle
- vṛttapariṇāha
- Circumference of a circle
- vyāsa
- 1. Diameter. 2. (sometimes) radius. 3. Breadth
- vyāsadala
- Semi-diameter, radius
- vyāsārdha
- Semi-diameter, radius
- vyāsayojana
- Diameter in terms of
*yojanas* - vyatipāta
- An astronomical phenomenon when the sum of the (true) longitudes of the Sun and the Moon amounts to half a circle (
*i.e.*., 180° or 6 signs) - vyoma
- Zero
- yāmya
- 1. The south direction which is presided over by
*Yama*. 2. The southern hemisphere (*yāmyagola*). 3. The*nakṣatra*,*Bhariṇi*that is presided over by*Yama* - yāmyottaraa (yāmyottaravṛtta or yāmyottaramaṇḍala)
- The local meridian
- yāvattāvat
- In algebra, an unknown quantity;
*abbr.*as*yā*; (*lit.*, as much as so much) - yoga
- 1. An interval of time during which the combined motions of the Sun and Moon add up to 13° 20'; (
*lit.*, sum) 2. Conjunction in longitudes of two heavenly bodies. 3. Addition - yogabhāga
- The degree of longitudes of the junction-stars
- yogatārā
- Junction-stars, being the prominent stars of the twenty-seven
*nakṣatras*used by the Hindu astronomers for the study of the conjunction of the planets, especially of the Moon with them. - yojana
- 1. A unit of distance, probably somewhere between five and ten kilometres. 2. A unit of distance. 8000 $\times$ 4 cubits. The length of a
*yojana*has differed at different times. The*yojana*of*Āryabhaṭa*I and*Bhāskara*I is roughly equivalent to 7½ miles - yojanakarṇa
- The distance of a planet in terms of
*yojanas* - yojanavyāsa
- The diameter in terms of
*yojanas* - yuga
- 1. A calendar intercalation cycle. 2. A cosmological time interval, especially a
*mahāyuga*. 3. A period of 4,320,000 years - yuta
- Added;
*abbr.*as*yu*in algebra - yuti
- 1. Union 2. Junction
- zīj
- (Arabic, Persian) A set of tables and algorithms for astronomical computation in Islamic science

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# HAMSI

The History of Astronomical and Mathematical Sciences in India (HAMSI) Working Group is dedicated to fostering and disseminating research in the history of Indian exact sciences (including astronomy, mathematics, and related subjects), and integrating it into the history of mathematics in general.

### Glossary: Sanskrit Technical Terms

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