HAMSIHAMSI

The History of Astronomical and Mathematical Sciences in India (HAMSI) Working Group is dedicated to fostering and disseminating research in the history of Indian exact sciences (including astronomy, mathematics, and related subjects), and integrating it into the history of mathematics in general.

Glossary: Sanskrit Technical Terms


Terms and definitions collated from the following sources:

Plofker, K. 2009. Mathematics in India.  Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Sarasvati Amma, T. A.  1979. Geometry in Ancient and Medieval India. Delhi: Motilal Barnarsidass.
Somayaji, D. A. 1971. A Critical Study of the Ancient Hindu Astronomy in the light and language of the modern. Dharwar: Karnataka University.
Subbarayappa, B. V.  and K. V. Sarma. 1985. Indian Astronomy: A Sourcebook. Bombay: Nehru Centre.



ābādhā (or avabādhā, avadhā, abadhā, badhā)
Segment of the base of triangle produced by the altitude on it; the projection of any slanting side on the horizontal
adhidina
Intercalary day
adhimāsa(ka)
Intercalary month; the intercalary months denote the excess the lunar (synodic) months over the solar months and thus the intercalary months in a yuga are the lunar months minus the solar months in the yuga
adhimāsaśeṡa
Residue relating to the intercalary month, adhimāsa
adhivarṡa
Twelve intercalary months
agrā
Amplitude at rising i.e., the arc of the celestial horizon lying between the east point where the heavenly body concerned rises; or the $\mathcal{R}$ sine thereof (sometimes called agrājyā), which is equal to the distance between the east-west line and the rising-setting of the heavenly body concerned
ahargaṇa
1. The number of days accumulated between a given epoch date and some desired date. 2. The number of mean civil days elapsed since the beginning of Kaliyuga (or any other epoch)
ahorātra
1. A day and night, a nychthemeron. 2. The day radius i.e., the radius of the diurnal circle
ahorātrārdhaviṣkambha
Semi-diameter of the diurnal circle (of a heavenly body, particularly the Sun) i.e., the day radius.
ahorātrāsu
The number of asus in a day and night i.e., 21600
ahorātravṛtta
Diurnal circle
akṡāṃśa
Local latitude in degrees
akṣa
Latitude - The term akṣa is an abbreviation of the complete term, akṣonnati, meaning the inclination of the Earth's axis to the plane of the celestial horizon, i.e., the latitude of the place
ākṣadṛkkarma
Visibility correction due to local latitude
akṣajīvā
$\mathcal{R}$ sine of latitude
akṣajyā
$\mathcal{R}$ sine of latitude
akṣṇayārajju
The diagonal chord of rectangle or a square
amāvasyā
Day of conjunction of Sun and Moon i.e., New Moon day
aṃśa
1. Degree. 2. Part. 3. An upper vertex of a quadrilateral.
anādeśyagrahaṇa
The eclipse that are not to be predicted
aṅgula
1. Digit, as a unit of linear measure (finger-breadth). 2. Unit of length, $1/24$th of a cubit
antyajyā
The current $\mathcal{R}$ sine difference, i.e., the $\mathcal{R}$ sine difference corresponding to the elementary arc occupied by a planet In Hindu trigonometry, the quadrant of a circle is divided into 24 equal parts called elementary arcs.
antyaphala
Maximum correction due to the mandocca or śīghrocca
antyaphalajyā
$\mathcal{R}$ sine of the maximum correction
anuloma
Direct or anticlockwise
anuṣṭubha
A Sanskrit verse meter consisting of four quarter-verses of eight syllables each
apakrama
1. Greatest declination. 2. Declination
apakramamaṇḍala
Ecliptic
apama
Declination
apamaṇḍala
Ecliptic
ardha
Half
ardhajyā
$\mathcal{R}$ sine
arkāgrā
Sun's amplitude at rising, or the $\mathcal{R}$ sine thereof
asakṛtkarma
Method of successive approximations
asavaḥ
Asus of the right ascension or the time in the asus of rising at the equator
aśvayuk
Month of Aśvina
asita
1. asita pakṣa i.e., the dark half of a lunar (synodic) month. 2. The measure of the unilluminated part of the Moon
asta
The setting of a heavenly body
astalagna
The setting point of the ecliptic
astamaya
Diurnal or heliacal setting
astamayodayasūtra
$\mathcal{R}$ sine setting line
asu
A unit of time equal to four sidereal seconds
avamādina
Omitted lunar days or omitted tithis
avamarātra
Omitted lunar days or omitted tithis
avamaśeṡa
Residue of the omitted lunar days or omitted tithis
avanati
Moon's true latitude as corrected for parallax
aviśeṣakalākarṇa
The distance (lit., hypotenuse) of a planet measured in minutes and obtained by the method of successive approximations
āyāma
Breadth of an object; sometimes, length as opposed to breadth
ayanāṃśa
Arc of the ecliptic intercepted between the vernal equinox and the zero point (as set by the Indian tradition)
ayana
Northward or southward motion of a planet
āyanadṛkkarma
Visibility correction due to ecliptic longitude
ayata
Rectangle
ayatacaturbhuja
Rectangle
ayatavṛtta
Ellipse
bāhu
1. The base of a right angled triangle. 2. The bāhu (or bhūja) corresponding to a planet's anomaly or to any arc/angle
bāhuphala
Correction due to the mandocca or śigrocca of a planet
bāṇa
1. Arrow. 2. Height of an arc or segment of a circle
bava
The name of the five movable karaṇa, the karaṇa being one of the five important elements of the Hindu calendar
bha
1. Asterism. 2. Sign
bhabhrama
Revolutions of fixed stars
bhacakra
Circle of the asterisms
bhāga
1. Degree. 2. Part
bhagaṇa
The revolution number of a planet, i.e., the number of revolutions that a planet performs around the Earth in a certain period
bhagola
Sphere of asterisms, with its centre at the Earth's centre
bhapañjara
Circle of the asterisms
bhapariṇāha
Circumference of the circle of the asterisms
bheda
Occultation of a star
bhinnadikka
Unlike direction
bhoga
Motion
bhogyakāla
Time to pass or expend
bhogyakhaṇḍa
Tabular difference of $\mathcal{R}$ sine, etc. to be passed in the meridian
bhū
1. Base of a triangle. 2. Earth
bhūcchāyā
Earth's shadow
bhūdina
Civil days or Terrestrial days
bhūdivasa
Civil days or Terrestrial days
bhūgola
Sphere of the Earth
bhūgolaviṣkambha
Diameter of the Earth
bhuja
1. Longitude. 2. Base of a triangle
bhujā
Lateral side of a right angled triangle
bhujājyā
The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of bhuja (bhujā or bāhu)
bhujāntara
Correction for the equation of time due to the eccentricity of the ecliptic
bhujāphala
Correction due to the mandocca or śigrocca of a planet
bhūjyā
Earth-sine. The distance between the rising-setting line and the line joining the points of intersection of the diurnal circle and the six o'clock circle, or the $\mathcal{R}$ sine thereof
bhuktakāla
Elapsed time
bhukti
Motion or daily motion
bhuktiviśeṣa
Motion differences
bhuktiyoga
Sum of daily motions
bhūmi
1. Base of a triangle. 2. Earth
bhūtārāgrahavivara
The distance between Earth and a star planet
bīja
1. Algebra. 2. A conversion constant to adjust astronomical parameters; (lit., seed)
bimba
Disc or orb of a planet
brahmadivasa
A day of Brahmā, a kalpa
caitra
The name of the first month of the year
cakra
1. Circle. 2. Twelve signs or 360°
cakraliptā
The number of minutes of arc in a circle, i.e., 21600
cakrārdha
Half of a circle, i.e., 180°
cakravālavṛtta
Annulus
calakendra
The longitude of the planet's śīghrocca i.e., the apex of fastest motion, minus the longitude of the planet
calakendraphala
Correction due to the planet's śīghrocca
caloca
Apex of fastest motion.
candrabhagaṇa
Revolutions of the Moon
candraha
Time taken by the Moon to overtake the Sun by 12° beginning from the zero point of the ecliptic (as set by the Indian tradition)
candrakarṇa
Distance of the Moon from the Earth
cāndramāsa (saṣimāsa)
Lunar month or Lunation
cāndravarśa
Twelve lunar months
candrocca
Moon's apogee
cāpa
Arc
cāpabhāga
An element of arc of elementary arc, i.e., one of the twenty four equal divisions of a quadrant. The $\mathcal{R}$ sine differences for these have been tabulated by Aryābhaṭa I
cāpajyārdha (jyā)
$\mathcal{R}$ sine
cāpakṣetra
Segment
cāpita
Converted into (or reduced to) the corresponding arc
cara
Ascensional difference. It is defined by the arc of the celestial equator lying between the six o'clock circle and the hour circle of a heavenly body at rising
caradala
Ascensional difference. It is defined by the arc of the celestial equator lying between the six o'clock circle and the hour circle of a heavenly body at rising
carajīvārdha
The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the ascensional difference
carajyā
The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the ascensional difference
caraphala
Correction due to ascensional difference
carapāṇa
The asus of ascensional difference
carasaṃskāra
Latitude correction in the celestial longitude of a planet
carāsu
The asus of ascensional difference
caturasra
Quadrilateral square
catuṣkona
Quadrilateral
chandas
Prosody or poetic metrics. One of the six Vedāṅgas
chāyā
1. Shadow. 2. The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the zenith distance
chāyābhuja
Length of the perpendicular from the end of the gnomic shadow to the East-West line
chāyākarṇa
Hypotenuse of the right-angled triangle formed with the gnomon and the gnomonic shadow cast by the Sun, being the other two sides
dakṣiṇāyana
Sun's southward motion from summer solstice to winter solstice
daṇḍa
A punctuation mark in the form of a vertical stroke
darśanasaṃskāra
Visibility corrections. There are three visibility corrections: (a) akṣadṛkkarma which is the measure of the arc of the ecliptic lying between the hour circle and the circle of position of the planet concerned, (b) ayanadṛkkarma which is measured by the arc of the ecliptic lying between the circle of celestial longitude and the hour circle of planet concerned and (c) a correction of 48' to be subtracted from the Moon's longitude or added to it according as the Moon is in the eastern or western hemispheres. These corrections having been applied to the true longitude of a planet, we obtain the longitude of that point of the ecliptic that rises on the local horizon simultaneously with the actual planet
deśantara
1. The longitude of a place. It is either the distance of the place from the prime meridian or the difference between the local and standard times. 2. Longitudinal correction in the celestial longitude of a planet
deśantaraghaṭī
deśāntara, in ghaṭīs of the difference between the local and standard times
deśāntaraphala
Correction due to the difference in longitude
dhanu
Arc
dhanuḥkāṣṭha
Arc; (lit., bow-stick)
dhanurbhāga
The element of arc or elementary arc, i.e., one of the twenty four equal divisions of a quadrant. The $\mathcal{R}$ sine differences for these have been tabulated by Aryābhaṭa I
dharā
1. Base of a triangle. 2. Earth
dharma
The Hindu doctrine of sacred law or righteousness; the moral and religious duties prescribed for humans
dhruva
Pole of the celestial equator
dhruvaprota
Secondary to the celestial equator
dhruvaprotavṛtta
Declination circle
dhruvasūtra
Declination circle
dhruvayaṣṭi
Polar axis
dikjyā
$\mathcal{R}$ sine of the azimuth measured from the East point
dina
Day
dinadalāntyā
āntyā at midday
dinagaṇa
1. The number of days accumulated between a given epoch date and some desired date. 2. The number of mean civil days elapsed since the beginning of Kaliyuga (or any other epoch)
dinagata
Time of day passed/elapsed
dināntodayalagna
The rising point of the ecliptic at Sunset
dinārdha
Half day
dinaśeṡa
Time until sunset
dorjyā
$\mathcal{R}$ sine of longitude
dṛggati
Arc of the ecliptic between the Sun or Moon and the celestial ecliptic point or its $\mathcal{R}$ sine value
dṛggatijyā
$\mathcal{R}$ sine of dṛggati
dṛggola
Visible celestial sphere
dṛgjyā
$\mathcal{R}$ sine of Meridian zenith distance or simply, the $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the zenith distance
dṛkjyā
$\mathcal{R}$ sine of the zenith distance in any position
dṛklambana
Parallax in zenith distance
dṛkcgāyā
Parallax
ṛkkarma
Visibility corrections. There are three visibility corrections: (a) akṣadṛkkarma which is the measure of the arc of the ecliptic lying between the hour circle and the circle of position of the planet concerned, (b) ayanadṛkkarma which is measured by the arc of the ecliptic lying between the circle of celestial longitude and the hour circle of planet concerned and (c) a correction of 48' to be subtracted from the Moon's longitude or added to it according as the Moon is in the eastern or western hemispheres. These corrections having been applied to the true longitude of a planet, we obtain the longitude of that point of the ecliptic that rises on the local horizon simultaneously with the actual planet
dṛkkṣepa
1. Ecliptic zenith distance or its $\mathcal{R}$ sine. Thus, the dṛkkṣepa is the zenith distance of that point of a planet's orbit which is the shortest distance from the zenith. This term is sometimes also used fro the $\mathcal{R}$ sine of that zenith distance. 2. The arc measuring on vertical to ecliptic between the zenith and the nonagesimal point
dṛkkṣepajyā
The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the dṛkkṣepa
dṛkkṣepamaṇḍala
1. Vertical circle through the central ecliptic point. 2. Secondary to ecliptic passing through the zenith
dṛṅmaṇḍala
1. Vertical circle. 2. Circle passing through zenith and the planet
dvisamabhuja
Isosceles triangle
dyudalaśanku
$\mathcal{R}$ sine altitude at midday
dyūgaṇa
1. The number of days accumulated between a given epoch date and some desired date. 2. The number of mean civil days elapsed since the beginning of Kaliyuga (or any other epoch)
dyujyā
1. $\mathcal{R}$ cosine of the declination of a celestial body. 2. Radius of diurnal circle
dyujyāmaṇḍala
Diurnal circle
dyujyāvṛtta
Diurnal circle
gaccha
In Jainism, a lineage of teachers and pupils
gaṇita
1. Computation, calculation; mathematics in general. 2. The mathematical component of astronomy and astrology
gantavya
To be traversed; to come, succeeding
gata
Traversed, elapsed, past, preceding
gati
Motion, generally used in the sense of daily motion of the planets
gatyantara
Motion-difference
ghanabhūmadhya
Earth's centre
ghanagola
Solid sphere
ghanaphala
Volume
ghāta
Product; multiplication
ghātakṣetra
Diagrammatic representation of a multiplication product
ghaṭī
A unit of time equal to 24 minutes
ghaṭikā (also known as ghaṭī),
1. A time unit equal to one-sixtieth of a day, 24 minutes
gola
1. Sphere. 2. Celestial sphere. 3. Hemisphere; northern or southern hemispheres 4. Spherics
golayantra
Automatic sphere-model of the bhagola
gotra
Among Brāhmaṇas, a lineage tracing its descent to one of the legendary sages of Hinduism
graha
Planet
grāhaka
The eclipsing body; the eclipser
grāhakārdha
Half the diameter of the eclipsing body
grahakṣitija
A great circle whose poles are situated at a planet
grahaṇa
Eclipse
grahaṇamadhya
Middle of the Eclipse
grāhya
The eclipsed body
grāhyabimba
The disc of the eclipsed body
grāhyamaṇḍala
The centre of the eclipsed body
grāsa
1. Measure of the eclipse. 2. Erosion by overlapping. 3. Common portion of two intersecting circles; the largest width thereof
guṇaka
Multiplier
gurvabda
Jovian year
gurvakṣara
Long syllable
harija
Horizon
hasta
Cubit, measure of length
ha'ya
(Arabic) Islamic astronomy, particularly its geometric models
horā
Unit of time equivalent to $1/24$th of one day and night period
hṛdaya
Circum-radius
hṛdayarajju
Circum-radius
hṛt
Circum-radius
hṛti
Hypotenuse
illam
(Malayalam) Among Brāhmaṇas in Kerala, a family residence or estate
indūcca
The Moon's apogee i.e., the remotest point of the Moon's orbit
induāta
Ascending node of the Moon
iṣṭa
1. Given, desired or chosen at pleasure. 2. iṣṭagraha i.e., desired or given planet
iṣṭhaśaṅku
$\mathcal{R}$ cosine of the zenith distance of the Sun in any arbitrary position
iṣu
1. Arrow. 2. Height of an arc or segment of a circle
janya
Rational right triangle or rectangle from which other rational figures are to be obtained; a figure with rational sides
jātaka
Genethlialogy; the practice or study of casting nativity horoscopes
jāti
Hereditary social and occupational group, often translated caste
jātya
A rational right-angled triangle or any rectilinear figure with rational sides
jīvā
1. Sine or Chord; (lit. bowstring.) 2. $\mathcal{R}$ sine
jivābhukti
True daily motion derived with the help of the table of $\mathcal{R}$ sine differences
jñāti
Hereditary social and occupational group, sometimes a subdivision of jāti and sometimes synonymous with it
jūka
Sign Libra
jyā
1. Sine or Chord; (lit. bowstring.) 2. $\mathcal{R}$ sine (Radius $\times$ Sine). The $\mathcal{R}$ sine difference corresponding to the twenty four equal divisions of a quadrant
jyārdha (jyā)
$\mathcal{R}$ sine
jyotiṣa
Astronomy and astrology. One of the six Vedāṅgas
kadamba
Pole of the ecliptic
kadambaprata
Secondary to the ecliptic
kadambasūtra
Secondary to the ecliptic
kāha
A day of Brahmā known as a Kalpa
kakṣyā
Orbit
kakṣyāmaṇḍala (also known as kakṣavṛtta)
Mean orbit of planet, deferent of concentric
kalā
A time unit equal to one-sixtieth of a muhūrta. 2. In the Jyotiṣa vedāṅga, a time unit equal to 201/20 of a ghaṭikā. 3. Minute of Arc
kālāṃśa
Degrees indicating time
kalārdhajā
The 24 $\mathcal{R}$ sine differences in terms of minutes
Kaliyuga
The last of the four ages in a mahāyuga, equal to 432,000 years. Indian cosmology holds that the current Kaliyuga began on 18 February 3102 BCE
kalpa
1. A lifetime of the universe, conventionally equal to 4,320,000,000 years. 2. A period of 1000 yugas. 3.The Vedāṅga of ritual practice
karaṇa
1. A handbook for astronomical computation or astronomical manual. 2. A time unit equal to half a tithi or the time during which the Moon gains 6° over the Sun 3. The name of one of the five principal elements of the Hindu calendar
karaṇī
1. A surd or non-square number; (lit., making). 2. The side of a rectilinear figure; the side of a square or rectangle. 3. The maker or producer of the required area.
karṇa
1. Hypotenuse, lateral side. 2. Distance of planet from Earth
kaṭapayādi
An alphanumeric notational system for verbally representing numerals
kendra
1. Anomaly. The kendra is of two kinds, mandakendra and śīghrakendra. The mandakendra of a planet is equal to the 'longitude of the planet minus the longitude of the planet's mandocca i.e., the planet's apogee', where as the śīghrakendra of a planet is equal to the longitude of the planet's śīghrocca i.e., the apex of fastest motion, minus the longitude of the planet. 2. Centre
kha
1. Void. 2. Sky
khagola
Sphere of the sky
khamadhya
Middle of the sky
khaṇḍagrahaṇa
Partial eclipse
khātaphala
Volume of a pit or excavation
koṇa
Angle, corner
koṇamaṇḍala (koṇavṛtta)
Intermediary vertical circle
koṇaśanku
1. $\mathcal{R}$ cosine of the zenith distance of the Sun when the azimuth measured from the East-West line is 45°. 2. $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the altitude from the intermediary vertical circle, koṇavṛtta
koṇaśankutala
Base of the koṇaśanku
koṣṭhaka
A set of tables for astronomical computation
koṭi (koṭī)
1. Vertical/perpendicular side of right-angled triangle. 2. Complement of the bhuja
koṭijyā
Cosine, $\mathcal{R}$ cosine
koṭiphala
The result obtained by multiplying the $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the koṭi due to the planet's kendra by the tabulated epicycle and dividing the product by 80
krama
Serial order
kramajyā
1. Sine or Chord; (lit. bowstring.) 2. $\mathcal{R}$ sine (Radius $\times$ Sine). The $\mathcal{R}$ sine difference corresponding to the twenty four equal divisions of a quadrant
krānti
Declination
krāntijyā
$\mathcal{R}$ sine of the declination of a celestial body
krāntimaṇḍala
Ecliptic
kriya
The zodiacal sign, Aries
kṛti
Square
kṛttikā
The nakṣatra of Kṛttikā
kṣayamāsa (aṃhaspatimāsa)
A candramāsa lost in the process of intercalation
kṣayayaha (unaha)
A lost tithi or a tithi containing two consecutive Sunrises
kṣepa
1. Additive or subtractive quantity/correction. 2. Celestial latitude, see under vikṣepa
kṣetra
Closed figure
kṣetragaṇita
Geometry
kṣetraphala
Area
kṣipti
Celestial latitude
kṣiptiliptikāḥ
The minutes of the celestial latitude
kṣiticchāyā
Earth's shadow
kṣitija
1. Mars. 2. Horizon (kṣitija vṛtta)
kṣitijā (also known as kṣitijyā)
Earth-sine. The distance between the rising-setting line and the line joining the points of intersection of the diurnal circle and the six o'clock circle, or the $\mathcal{R}$ sine thereof
ku
1. Earth. 2. Base of a triangle
kūdina
Civil days or Terrestrial days
kuja
Mars
kujyā
Earth-sine. The distance between the rising-setting line and the line joining the points of intersection of the diurnal circle and the six o'clock circle, or the $\mathcal{R}$ sine thereof
kuvāyu
Terrestrial wind
kvāvarta
Rotations of the Earth
laghujyā
Calculations of $\mathcal{R}$ sine of arcs of 10°
laghvahargaṇa
Civil days between the end of one solar year and any date in the current year
lagna
The rising point of the ecliptic i.e., orient ecliptic point.
lakṣajyā
Sine, $\mathcal{R}$ sine when $\mathcal{R}$ = 120 units
lambajyā
The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the colatitude
lamba(ka)
1. The $\mathcal{R}$ cosine of the colatitude 2. perpendicular/altitude/vertical of a figure
lambakaguṇa
The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the colatitude
lambāṃśa
Colatitude in degrees
lambana
Parallax in longitude; or, in particular, the difference between the parallaxes in longitude of the Sun and the Moon
laṅkā
The hypothetical place on the equator where the meridian of Ujjain intersects it, i.e., place with 0° longitude and 0° latitude
laṅkodaya
Time of rising of the Signs at Laṅkā, i.e., right ascensions of the Signs
lipta
Minute of an arc
liptāśeṣa
The residue of the minute
madhya
1. Centre, middle. 2. Mean. 3. Middle term in a series. 4. Zenith distance of ecliptic point
madhyacchāyā
The midday shadow of the gnomon
madhyagraha
Mean planet
madhyāhnacchāyākarṇa
Hypotenuse of right-angled triangle, two sides of which are the gnomon and the midday shadow
madhyajivā
The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the zenith distance of the meridian ecliptic point
madhyajyā
Meridian sine, i.e., $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the zenith distance of the meridian ecliptic point
madhyalagna
Meridian ecliptic point
madhyalagnaśanku
$\mathcal{R}$ cosine of the meridian ecliptic point
madhyābhuktiḥ
Mean daily motion
madhyamalambana
1. Parallax in zenith distance. 2. Mean Altitude
madhyarkrānti
Declination of the place of a planet on the ecliptic
madhyamasavana
Mean solar day
madhyasphuṭa
True mean motion of a planet
mahāyuga
A cosmological time span equal to 4,320,000 years
mahī
1. Base of a triangle. 2. Earth
maitra
The nakṣatra, Anurādhā which is presided over by Mitra
makara
Capricorn
māṇaikyārdha
Sum of the radii of the eclipsing and the eclipsed bodies
manda
1. The inequality in a planet's orbital motion that depends on its position with respect to the stars, analogous to zodiacal anomaly. (lit., slow). 2. Slow, apex of slow motion
mandagatiphala
Correction to the mean motion of a planet
mandakarṇa
Hypotenuse associated with mandocca
mandakendrajyā
$\mathcal{R}$ sine of the mandakendra
maṇḍala
Circle, revolution
mandāṃśa
The longitudes of the apogees of the planets in terms of degrees
mandāntyaphala
Maximum correction due to mandocca
mandāntyaphalajyā
$\mathcal{R}$ sine of the maximum correction due to mandocca
mandaparidhi
Circumference of the manda epicycle
mandaphala
Equation of the centre
mandaphalajyā
$\mathcal{R}$ sine of the equation of the centre
mandaspaṣṭagati
Mean motion of a planet corrected by mandagatiphala
mandasphuṭa
1. Planet's longitude corrected for the equation of centre. 2. Mean motion of a planet corrected by mandagatiphala
mandasphuṭagati
Mean motion of a planet corrected by mandagatiphala
mandavṛtta
manda epicycle
mandocca
Apogee or aphelion of a planet
mandoccakarṇa
Hypotenuse associated with mandocca
mandoccaphala
Correction due to planet's mandocca
manu
A period of time equal to 72 yugas
manvantara
A cosmological time span equal to seventy-one mahāyugas or 306,720,000 years
māsa
Month
meṣa
Sign Aries
mīmāṃsā
The Vedāṅga of philosophical investigation of scripture; a division of Indian philosophy
mīna
Sign Pisces
mokṣa
The separation of the eclipsed body after an eclipse, the last contact, or the end of the eclipse
mṛga
Sign Capricorn
muhūrta
A time unit equal to one-thirtieth of a day
mukha
Face, top-side of an object or figure with more than three sides, especially the top or shorter/parallel side of a trapezium
mūla
1. Square root. 2. Base text (on which an expository commentary is written)
nabha
Zero
nāḍī
Unit of time equivalent to 24 minutes
nāḍīvalaya
Celestial equator
nāgarī (also called deva-nāgarī)
The name of the script most commonly used to write Sanskrit
nakṣatra
1. One of the twenty-seven or twenty-eight constellations that lie in the orbital path of the Moon. 2. An arc of the ecliptic with length 13° 20' , associated with one of the above mentioned lunar constellations. 3. An interval of time during which the Moon traverses an arc of 13° 20'. 4. Asterism
nakṣatradivasa (nakṣatradina)
Sidereal day
nakṣatramāsa
Sidereal month
nara
Gnomon
natabhāga
Meridian zenith distance
natabhāgajyā (natajyā)
$\mathcal{R}$ sine of zenith distance
natajyā
$\mathcal{R}$ sine of zenith distance
natakāla
Hour-angle measured in time
natakālajyā
$\mathcal{R}$ sine of hour-angle
natakālakoṭijyā
$\mathcal{R}$ cosine of hour-angle
natakāletkramajyā
$\mathcal{R}$ versed sine of hour-angle
natāṃśa
Zenith distance
nati
1. Meridian zenith distance or the $\mathcal{R}$ sine of that. 2. Difference between the parallaxes in latitude of the Sun and the Moon i.e., latitudinal parallax
nemi
Part of an annulus
nīca
Perigee of epicycle or the the eccentric of the planet
nīcoccavṛtta
Epicycle
nīcoccarekhā
Line of apse
nīcoccavṛtta
Epicycle
nirakṣajāḥ (asavaḥ)
Asus of the right ascension or the time in the asus of rising at the equator
nirgama
Annulus
pāda
1. A quarter-verse; (lit., foot.) 2. Ascending Node
padabhā
A gnomon shadow measured in units of feet; (lit., foot-shadow)
pakṣa
1. A school or faction. 2. One side of an equation; (lit., wing or side.) 3. Lunar fortnight, i.e., the period from new Moon to full Moon or from full Moon to new Moon. The period from new Moon to full Moon is called the light fortnight (or the light half of a lunar month - śuklapakṣa) and that from full Moon to new Moon is called the dark fortnight (or the dark half of a lunar month - kṛṣṇapakṣa)
pala
1. Latitude. 2. Unit of time equivalent to 24 seconds
palabha
Equinoctial shadow of the gnomon at noon
palajyā
The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the latitude
palakarṇa
Hypotenuse of the right-angled triangle formed with the gnomon and the equinoctial shadow being the other two sides
pañcāṅga
A yearly calendar tracking the succession of various civil, liturgical, and astronomical time units
parakarṇa
Third diameter of a cyclic quadrilateral obtainable by interchanging a pair of adjacent sides
paramakrānti
Greatest declination of the Sun, i.e., the obliquity of the ecliptic
paramakṣipti
Greatest celestial latitude of the Moon, i.e., inclination of he Moon's orbit
paramāpakrama
Greatest declination, obliquity of the ecliptic
paramāpakramaguṇaḥ
The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the Sun's greatest declination
paramāpakramajīvā
$\mathcal{R}$ sine of the greatest declination
paraśaṅku (also known as paramaśaṅku)
$\mathcal{R}$ sine of the greatest altitude, i.e., $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the meridian altitude
paridhi
Circumference
parilekha
1. Diagram. 2. Projection of eclipse
parimaṇḍala
Ellipse or Circle
pariṇāha
Periphery, circumference
parivarta
Revolution
pārśvamānī
1. The lateral side of a quadrilateral or the flank-side measurement. 2. The flank-side measurer
parva
1. Time of conjunction or opposition of the Sun and the Moon. 2. Full Moon or the new Moon tithi. 3. An eclipse of the Sun and the Moon.
parvanāḍī
The nāḍīs of the full Moon or new Moon tithi (also called parva) which are to elapse at Sunrise on that day. In other words, the time in nāḍīs which is to elapse at Sunrise before the time of conjunction or opposition of the Sun and the Moon
paścārdha
The western half
pāta
1. An astrologically significant event when the longitudes of the Sun and Moon add up to 180° or 360° (equivalently 6 or 12 zodiacal signs). 2. The ascending node of a planet's orbit on the ecliptic. 3. The circumference cum in-centre cum ortho-centre of an equilateral triangle
pātabhāga
The degree of longitude of the ascending node
pātarekhā
The perpendiculars on the base and top of a trapezium fro the the point of intersection of its diagonals
pātī
Arithmetic; (lit., board - for the dust board on which computations were written out)
pausṇa
The nakṣatra, Revatī which is presided over by pūṣā
prabhā
The shadow of the gnomon
prāglagna (lagna or prāgvilagna)
Rising point of the ecliptic
pragrahaṇa
First contact in an eclipse
pragrāsa
The beginning of an eclipse, i.e., the first contact
prākkalpa
The eastern hemisphere
prākpaścimasutra
East-West line
prakriyā
Process
prāṇa
Unit of time equal to four sidereal seconds or one-sixth of a vināḍikā
pratiloma
Retrograde. A planet is said to be in pratiloma when its motion is retrograde.
pratimaṇḍala (kendravṛtta)
The eccentric circle of a planet
pratipad
The first tithi of either half of the lunar month
prati-vṛtta
Eccentric circle of a planet
prauga
Triangle, typically an isosceles triangle. (The fore-part of the shaft of a chariot that is triangular in shape)
pravahavāyu
Provector wind
prṣṭhaphala
Surface area
prṣṭhyā
Line of symmetry, usually the east-west line
Purāṇa
A sacred work on cosmology, mythology, and historical legend
pūrṇa
Full, complete
pūrṇimā
Full Moon
pūrvāparāsūtra
East-West line
pūrvāparāyata
Directed east to west
rāhubimba
Diameter of the shadow cone of the Earth at the lunar orbit
rajju
Perimeter
rāśi
Zodiacal sign or 30 °
ravi
The Sun
ravibhagaṇa
Revolutions of the Sun
ravikarṇa
Distance of the Sun from Earth
ravimāsa
Solar month
ravivarṣa
Solar Year
ṛjubhuja
Rectilinear figure
ṛṇa
Subtracted, negative
ṛtu
Season
ruṇḍa
Breadth (of an annular ring)
rūpa
1. Known number; unity; abbr. as in algebra
sakṛta
By the application of the rule only once (i.e., without the application of the method of successive approximation)
sama
North point of the horizon
samabāhu
Equilateral figure
samacakravāla
Circle
samacaturbhuja
1. Square or Rhombus. 2. Quadrilateral with all four sides equal
samadalakoṭi
Altitude
samakala
The planets are said to be samakala when they are either in conjunction or opposition in longitude
samakoṣṭhamiti
Area, a measure equal to unit squares in a figure
samaliptendu
The longitude of the Moon for the time of opposition or conjunction of the Sun and the Moon
samamaṇḍala (also known as sama vṛtta)
The prime vertical
samānalamba (or samalamba)
A quadrilateral with the altitudes equal; trapezium
samapariṇāha
Circumference of a circle
samaprota
Secondary to prime vertical
samarekhā
The meridian
samaśaṅku
1. $\mathcal{R}$ cosine of the zenith distance of the Sun when it is on the prime-vertical. 2. $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the altitude from prime vertical
samasūtra
Secondary to the prime-vertical
samparka
1. The sum of the diameters of the two bodies in contact. 2. Used in the sense of the sum of the two diameters of the eclipsed and eclipsing bodies
samparkārdha (also known as samparkadala)
Half the sum of the diameters of the eclipsed and eclipsing bodies
sampāta
Point of intersection
sampūrvāparaḥ śaṅkuḥ
The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the prime vertical altitude (of the Sun)
saṃsarpa
An intercalary month preceding a kṣayamāsa
saṃskṛta
Corrected
sandhi
The inter-space between the foot of an altitude and the foot of the flank-side from whose tip the altitude is drawn, usually in a quadrilateral
saṅkrānti
1. The moment when the Sun enters a zodiacal constellation (rāśi). 2. Last day of solar month
sapāṭacandra
Longitude of the Moon with respect to the nearer node of the lunar orbit
sapāṭasūrya
Longitude of the Sun with respect to the nearer node of the lunar orbit
sārpamastaka
Name of an astronomical phenomenon, one of the vyatipātas
sarvagrāsa
Total eclipse
saumya
1. North. The northern (hemisphere). 2. Mercury
sauradina
Solar day
sauramāsa
1. Time taken by the Sun to traverse each of the zodiacal constellations (rāśi). 2. Solar month
saurasaṃvarṣa
Solar year
saurasaṃvatsara
Solar year
sauri
Saturn
savanadina
Civil days or Terrestrial days
savanaha
Civil days or Terrestrial days
sāvanamāsa
30 civil days
savya
Clockwise
sāyaka
1. Arrow. 2. Height of an arc or segment of a circle
ṣaḍaśri
Tetrahedron
śakābda
The year of Śaka era
śakratārakam
The nakṣatra, Jyeṣṭhā that is presided over by Indra (Śakra)
śaṅkavarga
The distance of the projection of a heavenly body on the plane of the celestial horizon from the rising setting line of the heavenly body
śaṅkhavṛtta
A figure resembling the longitudinal section of a conch-shell
śaṅku
1. Gnomon. 2. The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the altitude of a heavenly body
śaṅkuvedha
Observations by the gnomon
śara
1. Arrow. 2. $\mathcal{R}$ versed sine. 3. Celestial latitude. 4. Height of an arc or segment of a circle
śaṣi
The Moon
śaṣidivasa (cāndradina)
Lunar day
śāstra
Learned discipline, science
śīghra
The inequality in a planet's orbital motion that depends on its position with respect to the Sun, analogous to synodic anomaly; (lit., fast)
śīghragatiphala
Second correction to mean motion of planet
śīghrakendra
The śīghra anomaly
shighrakendrajyā
$\mathcal{R}$ sine of the śīghra anomaly
shighrakendrakoṭijyā
$\mathcal{R}$ cosine of the śīghra anomaly
śīghraparidhi
Circumference of the śīghra epicycle
śīghraphala
Second correction to mean longitude
śīghraphalajyā
$\mathcal{R}$ sine of the second correction to mean longitude
śīghraśīghrocca
śīghra epicycle
śīghravṛtta
śīghra epicycle
śīghrocca
Apex of fastest motion, śīghra apogee
śīghroccakarṇa (also known as śīghrakarṇa)
It is equal to $\sqrt{\left(\mathcal{R} \pm \mathcal{R}\sin(k)\right)^2 + \left(\mathcal{R}\sin(b)\right)^2}$ where $\mathcal{R} = 3438'$, $k$ is koṭi and $b$ is bhuja due to śīghrakendra
śīghroccaphala
Correction due to the planet's śīghrocca
śreḍhīkṣetra
Diagrammatic representation of mathematical series
śṛṅgāṭaka
1. Arrow. 2. Height of an arc or segment of a circle
śṛṅgonnati
1. Triangle. 2. Some form of four-sided figure, tetrahedron
śroṇi
A lower vertex of a quadrilateral or triangle
śruti
Sacred texts ascribed to divine revelation, such as the Vedas; (lit., hearing)
śuddhi
1. Gain of the lunar reckoning over the Solar at the beginning of the lunar year. 2. Mean heliocentric position; for superior planets, mean position of the Sun
śulba
A measuring cord; ritual geometry for altar construction
śunya
Void
siddhānta
Technical treatise; in particular, a comprehensive treatise on astronomy
śīghrakendra
The longitude of the planet's śīghrocca i.e., the apex of fastest motion, minus the longitude of the planet
sita
1. The measure of the illuminated part of the Moon's disc; the phase of the Moon. 2. The light half of the lunar month (sitapakṣa). 3. Venus
sitamāna
The measure of the illuminated part of the Moon's disc
sitapakṣa
The light or bright half of a lunar month
śloka
Verse, especially a verse in anuṣṭubha meter
smṛti
Sacred texts ascribed to human authorship; (lit., remembering)
soma
A ritual beverage used in some ancient Vedic sacrifices
sparśa
First contact of an eclipse
sphuṭa
True or corrected
sphuṭabhoga
True motion
sphuṭabhukti
True (daily) motion
sphuṭabhūparidhi
Circumference of the Earth measure parallel to the equator at a specified latitude
sphuṭagraha
True planet
sphuṭakrānti
Declination of planet's centre
sphuṭalambana
Parallax in longitude; or, in particular, the difference between the parallaxes in longitude of the Sun and the Moon
sphuṭamadhya
1. True mean motion of a planet. 2. The true-mean planet. 3. The true-mean longitude of a planet
sphuṭavikṣepa
Celestial latitude corrected by parallax
sphuṭavṛtta
True or corrected epicycle
sphuṭayojanakarṇa
The true distance of a planet in terms of yojanas
sthityardha
Half the duration (of an eclipse)
sthityardhanāḍikā
Half the duration (of an eclipse) in terms of nāḍīs
sthūla
Gross, approximate
sūcī
The inner, outer or middle diameter of an annular ring
sūcīkṣetra
1. Triangle got by producing the flanks of a quadrilateral till they meet. 2. The pyramid or cone got by producing the lateral faces of the frustum of a pyramid or cone
sūtra
A rule or algorithm; (lit., thread)
svadeśabhodaya
Time of rising of the zodiacal signs at the local place, or oblique ascensions of the zodiacal signs
svadeśabhūmivṛtta
The local circumference of the Earth, i.e., circumference of the local circle of latitude
svadeśākṣa
The latitude of the local place
svadeśodaya
Time of rising of the zodiacal signs at the local place, or oblique ascensions of the zodiacal signs
tājika
An Islamic form of horoscopic astrology
tama(s)
Section of Earth's shadow cone at the Moon's distance
tamomūrti
The Moon's ascending node
tamoviṣkambha
Diameter of shadow, i.e., diameter of the Earth's shadow cone at the Moon's distance
tantra
A type of astronomical treatise
tārāgraha
Star planets, i.e., the planets Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn
tārāgrahas
Planets: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn
tātkālika
momentary, instantaneous; (lit., at that time)
tiryaṇmānī
1. The transverse side of a quadrilateral, the horizontal side. 2. The transverse measurer
tithi
A lunar day, or one-thirtieth of a synodic month
trairāśika
Rule of three quantities, simple proportion
tribhuja
Triangle
trijyā (also known as tribhajyā)
Radius or 3438', literally the $\mathcal{R}$ sine of the three signs (or an arc of 90°)
trisama
1. Equilateral triangle. 2. Trapezium with three equal sides
tryasra
Triangle, more specifically a right-triangle
tulā
Sign Libra
tulyacaturbhuja
1. Square or Rhombus. 2. Quadrilateral with all four sides equal
ubhayataḥprauga
Double Isosceles triangle; rhombus
ucca
The ucca of a planet is of two kinds - (a) mandocca i.e., the apex of slowest motion and (b) śīghrocca i.e., the apex of fastest motion
uccanīcaparivarta
Anomalistic or synodic revolutions
uccanīcavṛtta
Epicycle
ucchraya (or ucchriti)
Height of an object
udagayana (uttarāyaṇa)
Sun's northward journey from winter solstice to summer solstice
udaya
1. The rising of a planet on the eastern horizon. 2. Heliacal rising of a planet. 3. udaya lagna i.e., the rising point of the ecliptic. 4. Addition, as in kṣayodayau i.e., subtraction and addition
udayajīvā (also known as udayajyā)
$\mathcal{R}$ sine amplitude of the rising point of the ecliptic
udayāstamaya
Heliacal rising and setting
udayāsta-sutra
1. Straight line joining the rising and setting points of a celestial body on a horizontal diameter. 2. Line of intersection of diurnal circle and horizon
udaggola
Northern Hemisphere
udici
North-South line
unmaṇḍala
1. Equatorial horizon. 2. Six o'clock circle
unnatāṃśa
Complement of the zenith distance, or the $\mathcal{R}$ sine of that called unnatāṃśajyā
unnatakāla
1. Time elapsed after the rising of a celestial body. 2. Distance from the horizon in time
upavṛtta
A small circle parallel to the prime-vertical
urvī
1. Base of a triangle. 2. Earth
utkramaṇa (also known as utkramajyā)
$\mathcal{R}$ versed sine
utsedha
Height of an object
uttarāyaṇa
Sun's northward journey from winter solstice to summer solstice
utvṛtta
Equatorial horizon
utvṛttaśaṅku
$\mathcal{R}$ cosine of the zenith distance of the Sun as seen from a place on the equatorial horizon
vaidhṛta
An astronomical phenomenon when the sum of the (true) longitudes of the Sun and the Moon amounts to a circle (i.e., 360° or 12 signs)
vaiṣṇava
The nakṣatra, Śravaṇa that is presided over by Viṣṇu
vaiśva
The nakṣatra, Uttarāṣāḍha that is presided over by Viśve Devāḥ
vajrabhāsa
Cross-multiplication
vakra
Retrograde motion
vākya
A celestial longitude value encoded in alphanumeric notation; (lit., sentence)
valana
(lit. deflection) valana relates to an eclipsed body. It is the angle subtended at the body by the arc joining the north point of the celestial horizon and the north pole of the ecliptic (i.e., the angle between the circle of position and the circle of celestial longitude of the eclipsed body). valana is generally divided into two components: 1. akṣavalana and 2. ayanavalana. The akṣavalana is the angle subtended at the body by the arc joining the north point of the celestial horizon and the north pole of the celestial equator (i.e., the angle between the circle of position and the hour circle of the eclipsed body). The ayanavalana is the angle subtended at the body by the arc joining the north poles of the equator and the ecliptic (i.e., the angle between the hour circle and the circle of celestial longitudes of the eclipsed body). The valana is also defined as follows: The Great circle of which the eclipsed body is the pole is called the horizon of the eclipsed body. Suppose that the prime vertical, equator and the ecliptic intersect the horizon of the eclipsed body at the points A, B, and C respectively, towards the east of the eclipsed body. The the arc AB is called the akṣavalana, the arc BC is called ayanavalana, and the arc AC is called valana. valana is also called spaṣṭavalana
valayākārakṣetra
Figure shaped like an annulus or ring
vāra
Day
varga
1. Square, in arithmetic or geometry; abbr. as va in algebra. 2. The first twenty-five consonants in the Sanskrit alphabet
varṇa
lit., colour. 1. One of the four major divisions of humanity in Hinduism. 2. A way of designating unknown quantities in algebra; different unknowns are referred to by the names of different colours
varṣādhipa
Lord of the year
vāsava
The nakṣatra, Dhaniṣṭhā which is presided over by Vasu
vasudhā
1. Base of a triangle. 2. Earth
Vedāṅga
One of the six limbs, or supporting disciplines, of the sacred Vedas
vedha
Depth
vega
Velocity
vidikka
Contrary direction
vikṣepa
Celestial latitude
vikṣepāṁṣa
The degrees of celestial latitude
vikṣepajyā
The $\mathcal{R}$ sine of celestial latitude
vikṣepaliptikā
The minutes of celestial latitude
vikṣepamaṇḍala
Orbit of the planet
vikṣipti
Celestial latitude
viliptā (also known as viliptikā)
Second of an arc
viloma
Retrograde
vilomavivara
Difference of two planets, one direct and the other retrograde
vimardārdha
Half of the duration of totality of an an eclipse
viṃdaphala
Volume
vināḍikā
A unit of time, being one-sixth of a ghaṭikā equivalent to 24 seconds
vinmaṇḍala
Orbit of planet
vipala
A unit of time, being one-sixth of a ghaṭikā equivalent to 24 seconds
viṃdaphala
Volume
viśakha
The nakṡatra, Visākhā
viṣama
A quadrilateral with unequal sides; a cyclic quadrilateral
viṣamacaturbhuja
A quadrilateral with unequal sides; a cyclic quadrilateral
viṣamatribhuja
A Scalene triangle
viśeṣa
The difference between diagonal and the side of a square, especially when expressed in terms of the side
viṣkambhacakravāla
Ellipse
viṣkambha
Diameter
viṣkambhadala
Semi-diameter, radius
viṣkambhārdha
Semi-diameter, radius
viṣuvaddina
The day of the equinox
viṣuvaddinamadhyāhnacchāyā
The equinoctial midday shadow
viṣuvajīva
$\mathcal{R}$ sine of latitude
viṣuvat (viṣuvat vṛtta)
Celestial Equator
vistāra
Length or breadth
vistṛti
Radius or diameter
vitribha
Nonagesimal or the point of the ecliptic having a longitude 1° - 90° where 1 is the longitude of the point of intersection of the ecliptic with the horizon
vivara
Difference
viyat
Zero
vṛti
Perimeter
vṛtta
1. Circle of its circumference. 2. Epicycle
vṛttaparidhi
Circumference of a circle
vṛttapariṇāha
Circumference of a circle
vyāsa
1. Diameter. 2. (sometimes) radius. 3. Breadth
vyāsadala
Semi-diameter, radius
vyāsārdha
Semi-diameter, radius
vyāsayojana
Diameter in terms of yojanas
vyatipāta
An astronomical phenomenon when the sum of the (true) longitudes of the Sun and the Moon amounts to half a circle (i.e.., 180° or 6 signs)
vyoma
Zero
yāmya
1. The south direction which is presided over by Yama. 2. The southern hemisphere (yāmyagola). 3. The nakṣatra, Bhariṇi that is presided over by Yama
yāmyottaraa (yāmyottaravṛtta or yāmyottaramaṇḍala)
The local meridian
yāvattāvat
In algebra, an unknown quantity; abbr. as ; (lit., as much as so much)
yoga
1. An interval of time during which the combined motions of the Sun and Moon add up to 13° 20'; (lit., sum) 2. Conjunction in longitudes of two heavenly bodies. 3. Addition
yogabhāga
The degree of longitudes of the junction-stars
yogatārā
Junction-stars, being the prominent stars of the twenty-seven nakṣatras used by the Hindu astronomers for the study of the conjunction of the planets, especially of the Moon with them.
yojana
1. A unit of distance, probably somewhere between five and ten kilometres. 2. A unit of distance. 8000 $\times$ 4 cubits. The length of a yojana has differed at different times. The yojana of Āryabhaṭa I and Bhāskara I is roughly equivalent to 7½ miles
yojanakarṇa
The distance of a planet in terms of yojanas
yojanavyāsa
The diameter in terms of yojanas
yuga
1. A calendar intercalation cycle. 2. A cosmological time interval, especially a mahāyuga. 3. A period of 4,320,000 years
yuta
Added; abbr. as yu in algebra
yuti
1. Union 2. Junction
zīj
(Arabic, Persian) A set of tables and algorithms for astronomical computation in Islamic science