HAMSIHAMSI

The History of Astronomical and Mathematical Sciences in India (HAMSI) Working Group is dedicated to fostering and disseminating research in the history of Indian exact sciences (including astronomy, mathematics, and related subjects), and integrating it into the history of mathematics in general.

Word Numerals: the Bhūtasaṅkhyā system of notation

Word numerals (or object-numerals, as they are sometimes called)  are the basis of a system of numeration in which a word (referring to an object, an idea, or a collection of things) which has some physical, traditional, or mythological numerical significance is used to represent that number.  For instance, the word for “eye” refers to the number “2”, as does the word “arm” or “ear”; the word “veda” refers to “4”, since the number of books of the Veda is four; the word for “teeth” to the number “32”.  Long numerals are formed by stringing together appropriate word numerals into a compound and reading them from right to left.  For instance, “veda-rasa-candrāḥ” or “Veda-flavor-moon” would mean “164”.

List of sources:
Subbarayappa, B. V.  and K. V. Sarma. 1985. Indian Astronomy: A Sourcebook. Bombay: Nehru Centre.
Bag, A.K. and S.R. Sharma (eds.). 2003. The Concept of Śunya. New Delhi: India Aryan Books International.

Number Numeral Words
0 Synonyms of Sky - ananta, antarikṣa, abhra, ambara, ambuda, asat, ākāśa, kha, gagana, chidra, jalada, jaladhara, jaladharapatha, diva, nagna, nabha, payoda, payodhara, puṣkara, pūrṇa, pṛthu, pṛthula, bindu, megha, randhra, varīya, vindu, viyat, viṣṇupada, viṣṇupāda, vihāyas, vṛhat, vyoma, śūnya.
1 Synonyms of Earth and Moon - aṃśumān, acalā, abja, amṛtamṣu, avani, ādi, āsya, indu, ilā, uḍupati, urvarā, urvī, ṛkṣeśa, eka, eṇadhara, auṣadhīśa, ka, kalādhara, kali, ku, kumudākarapriya, kṣapākara, kṣamā, kṣiti, kṣoṇi, kṣoṇī, kṣmā, go, gotra, gotrā, glau, candra, candraramā jagatī, jaivātṛka, jyā, tanu, dākṣāyaṇīprāṇeśa, dharaṇī, dharā, dharitrī, nāyaka, niśākara, niśeśa, pitāmaha, pṛthivī, pṛthvī, prāleyāṃśu, brahma, bhuvanyu, bhū, bhūmi, mahī, mukha, mṛgalāñchana, mṛgāṅka, medinī, rajanīkara, rajanīśa, rātripa, rātrīśa, rugṇa, rūpa, lapana, vaktra, vadana, vasudhā, vasundharā, vāk, vidhu, viriñci, viśvambharā, śaśadhara, śaśabhṛt, śaśālāñchana, śaśāṅka, śaśi, śaśī, śītakara, śītakiraṇa, śītadyuti, śītamayūkha, śītaraśmi, śītāṃśu, śubhrabhānu, śveta, śvetāṃśu, sudhāṃśu, soma, sthirā, hariṇadhṛt, hariṇāṅka, himakara, himagu, himaraśmi, himāṃśu.
2 Synonyms of Eye and Hand - aṃsa, akṣi, antaka, ambaka, ayana, aśvi, aśvin, aśvinī, īkṣaṇa, oṣṭha, kara, karṇa, kuca, kuṭumba, garut, gulpha, cakṣu, jaṅghā, jānu, dasra, dṛś, dṛṣṭi, doḥ, dvandva, dvaya, dvi, dhruva, naya, nayana, nāsatyau, netra, pakṣa, pāṇi, bāhu, bhujā, yama, yamala, yuga, yugala, yugma, ravicandrau, raviputra, locana, śrotra, stana, hasta.
3 Synonyms of Fire and Worlds - agni, anala, ājyabjuk, ājyāśa, uṣarbudha, kāla, kṛśānu, kṛṣṇavartma, krama, guṇa, gupti, gṛha, jagat, jyoti, jvalana, jvāla, tapana, tṛtīya, traya, trikaṭu, trikāla, trigata, triguṇa, trijagat, trinetra, tripadī, traita, daha, dahana, dīpti, dyuti, dhāma, netra, pada, pāvaka, puṃ, pura, puruṣa, puṣkara, brahman, bhuvana, ratna, rāma, rudrākṣa, rohita, loka, locana, vacana, vahni, vikrama, viṣṇu, viṣṇukrama, vṛtta, vaiśvānara, śakti, śikhā, śikhin, śivanetra, śūla, saptārci, sahodara, sahodarāḥ, haranayana, haranetra, havyabhuk, havyavāhana, havyāśa, hutabhuk, hutabhuj, hutavaha, hutāśa, hutāśana, hotṛ.
4 Synonyms of Ocean - apas, abdhi, ambu, ambudhi, ambunidhi, ambhodha, ambhodhi, ambhonidhi, aya, arṇava, āpa, āmnāya, āya, āśrama, udadhi, udanvān, upāya, kaṣāya, kṛta, kendra, koṣṭha, gati, ghana, caraṇa, jala, jaladhi, jalanidhi, turīya, turya, toya, dik, diś, diśā, dhyāna, nadī, nigama, nimnageśa, nīradhi, nīranidhi, payodhi, payonidhi, pātha, pāthodhi, pitāmahāsya, praṇimnageśa, bandha, bandhu, brahmodbhava, mahormi, mahormika, māla, yuga, lavaṇoda, lokapāla, varṇa, vāridhi, vārinidhi, vārdhi, viṣadhi, viṣanidhi, veda, śruti, sañjñā, samudra, salilākara, sāgara, sukha.
5 Synonyms of Arrow - akṣa, anila, anuttara, artha, asu, āśuga, indriya, iṣu, kaṅkapatrī, karaṇīya, kalaṅka, kāmaguṇa, kāmadeva, khaga, tattva, tanmātra, dhī, nārāca, nālīka, pakṣi, pañca, pataṅga, patrin, parva, pavana, pāṇḍava, putra, pṛṣatka, prāṇa, bāṇa, bhāva, bhūta, bhedaka, marut, mahābhūta, mahāvrata, mārgaṇa, rāga, ratna, leya, leyaka, vadha, varṣman, vāta, vāyu, viśikha, viṣaya, vrata, śara, śarīra, śastra, śilīmukha, śuka, śvasana, samiti, sāyaka, smarabāṇa, smareṣu.
6 aṅga, abda, arāti, ari, ṛtu, kāya, kāraka, kārtika, kāla, kumāra, kumāravadana, kṛttikā, koṣa, kṣmākhaṇḍa, khara, guhaka, guhavaktra, guhāsya, cakrārdha, camū, caraka, jīva, tarka, darśana, dravya, bhārdha, māsārdha, rasa, rāga, rāsabha, ripu, lekhya, leśyā, varṇa, śakti, śāstra, śilīmukhapada, śiśu, ṣaṭ, ṣaṇmukha, samāsa, senā, skanda, svāda.
7 Synonyms of Horse and Mountain - aga, acala, atri, adri, anila, aśva, ṛṣi, kalatra, kulācala, kṣitibhṛt, kṣmādhāra, kṣmābhṛt, gandhanvaha, gandhavaha, giri, graha, ghoṭā, chanda (chandas), tattva, tāpasa, turaga, turaṅga, divicara, dvīpa, dharaṇidhara, dharādhara, dharitrīdhara, dhātu, dhī, naga, pannaga, parvata, pavana, bhaya, bhūdhara, bhūdhra, bhūbhṛt, marut, mahīdhara, mahīdhra,mātṛka, māruta, muni, yati, loka, vakrī, vāji, vāta, vāyu, vāra, vāsara, vyasana, śilā, śiloccaya, śaila, sapta, samīra, samīraṇa, sthira, svara, haya.
8 Synonyms of Elephant and Serpent - anīka, anuṣṭubh, ahi, ibha, uraga, karaṭin, karī (karin), kareṇu, karma (karman), kuñjara, gaja, gahana, gahvara, takṣa, tanu, danti (dantin), dik, diggaja, diṅnātha, diś, durita, dvipa, dvirada, dhī, dhīguṇa, nāga, nāgendra, padmī, pannaga, pavanabhuk, pīluka, puṣkarin, pradhāna, prabhāvaka, phaṇin, buddhiguṇa, bhadra, bhujaga, bhujaṅga, bhujaṅgama, bhūti, maṅgala, mataṅgaja, mati, mada, mātaṅga, yūthapa, vana, vasu, vāraṇa, viṣabhṛdvapu, vyāla, sriya, sarpa, siddhaguṇa, siddhi, sindhura, suṇḍipa, stamberama, stambherama, hastin.
9 aṅka, antara, anilāhva, ambujāsana, upendra, ṛddhi, kapāṭa, kavāṭa, kavi, kūpa, keśava, kṣata, khaga, khacara, khegāmī, gambhīra, gāmbhīra, gīr, go, graha, chidra, tāmisra, tārkṣyadhvaja, divisad, durgā, dvāra, nanda, nabhoga, nava, nidhāna, nidhi, paṭa, padārtha, bala, bila, miti, yantra, ratna, randhra, labdha, labdhi, vaṭa, vila, vivara, śuṣira, suṣira, hari.
10 avatāra, aṅguli, aṅgulī, āśā, kakubh, karma, kāṣṭha, kāṣṭhā, dik, dikpāla, diś, diśā, paṅkti, rāvaṇaśira, harit.
11 Synonyms of Śiva - akṣauhiṇī, aja, īśa, īśāna, īśvara, giriśa, girīśa, guṇī, gaurīśa, trayambaka, dhūrjaṭi, paśupati, pinākin, bharga, bhava, mahaḥ, mahādeva, maheśa, maheśvara, mṛḍa, rudra, śaṅkara, śambhu, śarva, śaśibhūṣaṇa, śitikaṇṭha, śiva, śūlin, śrīkaṇṭha, śvargeśa, hara.
12 Synonyms of Sun - arka, āditya, ina, uṣṇāṃśu, gaṇa, cakra, tapana, taraṇi, tigmāṃśu, tīkṣṇāṃśu, dinakara, dinanātha, dinapa, dinamaṇi, dineśa, divākara, dyumaṇi, nara, nā, pataṅga, pūṣā, pradyotana, bhagaṇa, bhānu, bhānumān, bhāskara, maṇḍala, mārtaṇḍa, māsa, mitra, mihira, ravi, rāśī, vivasvān, vyaya, śaṅku, savitā, sūrya, haṃsa.
13 aghoṣa, atijagatī, anaṅga, karaṇa, kāma, kriyāsthāna, jaya, yakṣa, vandya, viśva, viśve, viśvedevāḥ.
14 Synonyms of Indra - indra, indraka, kauśika, guṇasthāna, jiṣṇu, purandara, pūrvapa, bhuvana, bhūtagrāma, manu, rajju, loka, vajrin, vāsava, vidyā, śakra, śakvarī, śacīpati, śarva, surādhipa sureśa.
15 atiśakvarī, ahan, ahanisaṅkhyā, ghasra, tithi, dina, divasa, dyuniśa, pakṣa, parmādhārmika, vāsara, sandhyā.
16 avanipa, aṣṭi, indukalā, kalā, kṣmāpa, nṛpa, nṛpati, pṛthvīśa, bhūpa, bhūpati, bhūmipa, ritha, śaśikalā.
17 atyaṣṭi, ghatā, ghana, jīmūta, toyada, balāha, balāhaka, megha, maitra, valāha, valāhaka, vidhṛti.
18 abrahma, tīrtha, dhṛti, pāpasthānaka, purāṇa, vidyā, smṛti.
19 atidhṛti, vagha, sāma.
20 aṅgula, karaja, kṛti, nakha, nakhara.
21 utkṛti, kratu, prakṛti, bṛnda, makha, mūrccha, mūrcchanā, yajña, vṛnda, samidhaḥ, svaḥ, svarga.
22 ākṛti, ākṛtī, jāti, jātī, parīṣaha, mati.
23 aja, jahu, māyā, meṣa, vikṛti.
24 andha, arhat, gāyatrī, jina, tīrthaka tīrthakṛt, dhamma (dharma), buddha, saṃkṛti, siddha.
25 atikṛti, abhikṛti, jñāna, tattva, puṣṭa.
26 atitattva, utkṛti.
27 Synonyms of Star and Asterism - uḍu, ṛkṣa, khadyota, tāra, tāraka, tārakā, tārā, dhiṣṇya, nakṣatra, bha, bhāni.
28 ṛkṣa, deha, piṇḍa, hulā
29 āma, uṣṭi, kuva
30 jaṭā, tithi, dina, sādhvī
32 Synonyms of Teeth - danta, daśana, rada, radana.
33 Synonyms of Gods - amara, asvapna, gīrvāṇa, tridaśa, deva, daivata, nākagha, nirjara, sura, surādhipa.
39 dūrvā.
40 tāla, paṅkti, naraka.
45 tripakṣī.
48 jagatī, saṃskāra.
49 anila, tāna, pavana, marut, vāyu.
55 suṣṭi.
59 kāca, mokṣa.
64 kalā, yogini, śrīkalā.
65 puṣṭi.
72 puruṣakalā.
360 cakrāṃśa, bhāṃśa.
5400 darada.
21600 cakrakalā, cakraliptā.